TANK EXPERIMENT

Please find attached document and answer the following .docx file
Requirements: ANSWER
Geos 212: Intro to Oceanography Name__________________________
TANK LAB EXTRA CREDIT (5 points)
Density in Motion (Tank Experiment)
1a) Draw the Warm Water Experiment (RED)
1b) Is warm water more dense or less dense than cold water? _____________
2a) Draw the Salty Water Experiment (BLUE)
2b) Is salty water more dense or less dense than fresh water? _____________
3) Describe what happened when the green ice water was added:__________
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10/12/234Wind-driven transport in the ocean (horizontal):1) Subtropical and Subpolar Gyre currents (the biggest currents)2) Long-shore transport (moves lots of sand, but not much water) We added 3 more wind-driven transports (vertical)3) Coastal upwelling/Downwelling (from 100m)4) Equatorial upwelling (from 200m)5) Southern Ocean upwelling (from 2000m)Plus DENSITY-driven transports6) North Atlantic and Antarctic Downwelling (THURSDAY)TODAYReview78
10/12/235WesterliesWesterliesEasterliesEasterliesEasterliesEasterliesReview9Coastal UpwellingOFFSHORE WINDUPWELLING Cold waterHigh nutrients/CarbonHigh productivityGood fishingSmall waves (low fetch)Coastal DownwellingONSHORE WINDDOWNWELLING Warm waterLow nutrients/CarbonLow productivityPoor fishingBigger waves (high fetch)Review10
10/12/236WesterliesWesterliesUUUUDDDDEasterliesEasterliesonshoreoffshoreReview11Coastal upwelling from 100m (depth of shelf)UDonshoreoffshoreUDonshoreoffshoreUoffshoreDonshoreReviewDonshoreUoffshore12
10/12/237CO2, O2, and Nutrients vs DepthDEPTHLOWHIGHSURFACEPLANTSPHOTOSYNTHESISBACTERIA(REMINERALIZATION)UPWELLINGDELIVERS NUTRIENTS(FERTILIZER)CO2O2CO2 & NutrientsPOOP &DEAD BODIESReview13Wallace and Hobbes, 2006Dry ZoneDry ZoneWesterliesWesterliesTROPICSEquatorial upwelling!Review14
10/12/238NorthernHemisphereSouthernHemisphereReview15Southern Ocean Upwelling Review16
10/12/239The Antarctic Circumpolar Current systemReview17WOCE Section A16 – SalinityReview18
10/12/2310Impact of upwelling on Productivity(Blues are low productivity and Green-Red is high productivity)Southern Ocean upwelling from 2000mEquatorial upwelling from 200mReview19What is the role of the Southern Ocean in the global climate system?2It accounts for up to half of the annual oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.3Vertical exchange inthe Southern Ocean is responsible for supplying nutrients that fertilize three quarters of the biological production in the global ocean north of 30¡S.1It accounts for 67-98%of the excess heat that is transferred from the atmosphere into the ocean each year.20
10/12/2311Upwelling from 2000-3000mWhy is the Southern Ocean so important?•Southern Ocean is the only place where there is direct upwelling from very deep waters to the sea surface over a very large region21AtmosphereDeep OceanUpper OceanEnergy excess is mostlyin the ocean.Global Warming is Ocean Warming22
10/12/2312High inventoriesare associated with deep water formation in the North Atlanticand intermediate and mode water formation between 30¡S and 50¡S.Anthropogenic CO2 Column Inventory (mol/m2)23Warming Rate of deep ocean (>4000m)The Southern Ocean and the deep ocean are warming24
10/12/2313SOCCOM floatsPre-SOCCOM floatsNon-operational floatsAs of October 12, 2023SOCCOM Floats(278 so far…)Hannah ZanowskiU. Arizona B.A. (2010)Now: Asst. Prof. U. Wisc.-Madison90942526
10/12/2314Float 9095Float 9254Depth (m)Float 909260¡S 50¡S 40¡S 30¡S 20¡SUS GO-SHIP P16SpH in situ (total)Extend decadal-scale GO-SHIP carbon observations into the seasonal and interannual domain with BGC floats. Link the data to high res. models.27UW Argo / pre−SOCCOM floats with O245S45S45S45S50S50S50S50S55S55S55S55S60S65S70S75S80S85S150E140E130E120E110E60E50E40E30E30W40W50W60W70W110W120W130W140W150Wcalibrated_O2_trajectories06−Apr−20162007200820092010201120122013201420152016iceUW Argo / pre−SOCCOM floats with O245S45S45S45S50S50S50S50S55S55S55S55S60S65S70S75S80S85S150E140E130E120E110E60E50E40E30E30W40W50W60W70W110W120W130W140W150Wcalibrated_O2_trajectories06−Apr−20162007200820092010201120122013201420152016iceSince 2007, many of the Argo floats with oxygen sensors have spent a significant amount of time underneath seasonal ice around Antarctica without issue.Pre-SOCCOM Floats with Oxygen Ð under the ice+ = open water ¥ = under ice 28
10/12/2315Global Ocean CirculationINDIANJAVAAUSTR.SOUTHERNOCEAN PACIFICINDONESIAFROM PACIFICAABWAABWAABWNADWPDWATLANTICBeringStraitBeringStraitSAMW/AAIWNADWIDWSAMWNPIW Thermocline waterSAMW Subantarctic Mode WaterAAIW Antarctic Intermediate WaterNPIW North Pacific Intermediate WaterIDW Indian Deep WaterPDW Pacific Deep WaterNADW North Atlantic Deep WaterAABW Antarctic Bottom WaterDeep SinkingNote: Southern Ocean UPWELLING!29North Atlantic Deep Water FormationAntarctic Bottom Water Formation30
10/12/2316Wind-driven transport in the ocean (horizontal):1) Subtropical and Subpolar Gyre currents (the biggest currents)2) Long-shore transport (moves lots of sand, but not much water) We added 3 more wind-driven transports (vertical)3) Coastal upwelling/Downwelling (from 100m)4) Equatorial upwelling (from 200m)5) Southern Ocean upwelling (from 2000m)Plus DENSITY-driven transports6) North Atlantic and Antarctic DownwellingDensity changes at the surface cause SINKING – not upwelling31Density depends on both temperature and salinityDensity INCREASES with depthCold and/or salty sinks ßà Warm and/or fresh floats COLDWARMSALTYFRESHHEAVYLIGHTTemperatureSalinityDensity32
10/12/2317What are Density & Buoyancy?(not on exam!)3334
10/12/2318Record Low Arctic Ice 201250% less than the old ÒnormalÓ15% less than the previous minimumSource: www.nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews 1985:OLD ICE2023:NEW ICE3536
10/12/2319Late Summer (February)Late Winter (September)37This WeekThis Year38
10/12/2320SalinityWinter = SaltySummer = FreshIceWinter = GrowingSummer = Melting39EQNORTHSINKINGCOLDVERY SALTYSOUTHEQVERY COLDSALTYSINKINGSea IceSea IceAntarctic Bottom Water (Jul Ð SH winter)North Atlantic Deep Water (Jan Ð NH winter)Heat LossHeat Loss40
10/12/2321Cold Water Sinks / Warm Water Floats Salty Water Sinks / Fresh Water Floats41Impact of upwelling on Productivity(Blues are low productivity and Green-Red is high productivity)High Productivity in Summer (Dark in winter!)42
10/12/2322TANK EXPERIMENTDensity in Action!43Global Ocean CirculationINDIANJAVAAUSTR.SOUTHERNOCEAN PACIFICINDONESIAFROM PACIFICAABWAABWAABWNADWPDWATLANTICBeringStraitBeringStraitSAMW/AAIWNADWIDWSAMWNPIW Thermocline waterSAMW Subantarctic Mode WaterAAIW Antarctic Intermediate WaterNPIW North Pacific Intermediate WaterIDW Indian Deep WaterPDW Pacific Deep WaterNADW North Atlantic Deep WaterAABW Antarctic Bottom WaterDeep SinkingNote: Southern Ocean UPWELLING!44
10/12/2323Have you seen this picture of ÒThe Great Ocean ConveyorÓ before?a)YESb)NOc)Looks vaguely familiar45OLD MODEL: Thermohaline Circulation (ITÕS WRONG!!)XXNothing happening here!46
10/12/2324(real) Global Ocean CirculationINDIANJAVAAUSTR.SOUTHERNOCEAN PACIFICINDONESIAFROM PACIFICAABWAABWAABWNADWPDWATLANTICBeringStraitBeringStraitSAMW/AAIWNADWIDWSAMWNPIW Thermocline waterSAMW Subantarctic Mode WaterAAIW Antarctic Intermediate WaterNPIW North Pacific Intermediate WaterIDW Indian Deep WaterPDW Pacific Deep WaterNADW North Atlantic Deep WaterAABW Antarctic Bottom WaterDeep SinkingNote: Southern Ocean UPWELLING!47Wind-driven transport in the ocean (horizontal):1) Subtropical and Subpolar Gyre currents (the biggest currents)2) Long-shore transport (moves lots of sand, but not much water) We added 3 more wind-driven transports (vertical)3) Coastal upwelling/Downwelling (from 100m)4) Equatorial upwelling (from 200m)5) Southern Ocean upwelling (from 2000m)Plus DENSITY-driven transports6) North Atlantic and Antarctic Downwelling48
10/12/2325Things to Remember*** Upwelling = Nutrients = HIGH productivity ***Cold Water Sinks / Warm Water Floats Salty Water Sinks / Fresh Water FloatsOcean is LAYERED according to DENSITYDensity changes at the surface can only cause SINKINGDownwelling in North Atlantic and Antarctic (dense water) Cooling, evaporation, ice formation = sinkingGo to D2L and COMPLETE YOUR TANK LAB WRITE-UP!49

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