Research Topic on Single Parent Homes and increased risk of Depression and Behavioral issues

humanities case study and need the explanation and answer to help me learn.

Write a FULL-Two page summary for EACH of the TWO journal articles. At the top of each summary, type the correct FULL APA REFERENCE (according to how references are presented at the end of your textbook). You should have TWO separate summaries.
Within each summary, make sure to discuss all of the following:
The purpose of the study – why was it done?
How many participants were involved and who were they?
How the participants were involved (interviewed, given a questionnaire, etc.)?
What did the authors find – what were their findings/results – and conclusions?
In your opinion, was this study worthwhile and an important contribution to your topic?
In your opinion, how could this study have been done differently to make it better?
What is your overall reaction concerning this article

After completing the two summaries, write a one-half page reaction concerning what you learned about your topic. You only do one reaction to your overall topic, NOT one for each article. What is your reaction concerning journal articles and the process of how information about your topic is studied? What did you learn about your topic that you didn’t know previously?
All of the pages must be typed, double-spaced, use 12pt Times Roman font, have 1″ margins. Also make sure to include an APA title page (running head, page # and correct title information). Since each summary has the APA reference at the top, there is no need for a reference page or citations.
Requirements: 5 pages
Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found athttps://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=wjdr20Journal of DivorceISSN: 0147-4022 (Print) (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wzjd20Depression in Children from Single-Parent FamiliesDebra K.HuntleyMA, Randy E.PhelpsPhD & Lynn P.RehmPhDTo cite this article: Debra K.HuntleyMA, Randy E.PhelpsPhD & Lynn P.RehmPhD (1987)Depression in Children from Single-Parent Families, Journal of Divorce, 10:1-2, 153-161, DOI:10.1300/J279v10n01_10To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1300/J279v10n01_10Published online: 25 Oct 2008.Submit your article to this journal Article views: 126View related articles
Depression in Children from Single-Parent Families Debra K. Huntley Randy E. Phelps Lynn P. Rehm ABSTRACT. The study examined depression in 53 eldest children between six and ten years old who were living in mother-headed one-parent families. None of the childrcn were involved in counsel- ing or psychological treatment at the time of the study. Child report scores on the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) were regressed on three variables, gender of thc children, a self-report measure of the mother’s depression, and the amount of time since the parents’ separation. Analyses revealed that only gender of the child was a significant predictor of CDI scores, with boys reporting significantly greater depressive symptomatology. Contrary to expectation, neither time since separation nor depression in the mother added signifi- cantly to the prediction. Mother’s ratings of the child on DSM-111 criteria for depression were also regressed on the same three factors, revealing that only the mother’s depression score was a significant predictor of her perceptions of the child’s depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of current models of the psychological effects of divorce on children. In the U.S. today over 12 million families with children are headed by a single parent; over 83 percent of these parents are women (U.S. Census, 1980). Depression has often been cited as being evident in children experiencing the loss of a parent through Debra K. Huntley, MA, is Doctoral Candidate, Depaflment of Psychology, University of Houston-University Park, Houston, TX 77004. Randy E. Phelps. PhD, is Assistant Profcssor, University of Texas Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Mental Sciences Institute, 1300 Moursund, Houston, TX 77030. Lynn P. Rehm, PhD, is Professor. Department of Psychology, University of Houston- University Park, Houston. TX 77004. This paper was presented at the annual meeting of the Texas Association of Marriage and Family Therapy, San Antonio. January, 1985. The wseuch was suppofled in pan by NlMH grant 37977 to the second author. Q 1987 by The Hawonh Press, Inc. All rights reserved. 153
154 THE DIVORCE PROCESS divorce (Child, 1980; Hetherington, 1979; Rickard, 1982; Wal- lerstein & Kelly, 1980). In fact, Caplan and Douglas (1 969) indicate that loss of parents as a result of marital disharmony results in a higher incidence of depressive disorder than loss through death. One of the most common early responses of the child to divorce is depression (Child, 1980; Hetherington, 1979). Furthermore, the first two years following the parent’s separation appear to be the most difficult for the child, with problems adjusting to the loss of a parent greater during these two years than at any other time (Hetherington, Cox, & Cox, 1978). In contrast, however, Wallerstein and Kelly (1980) suggest that early affective responses to the divorce may extend over a much greater period of time. In their five-year follow- up of children of divorce, children were equally as likely to evidence the same affect and emotion as they did at the time of the separation. Another factor related to depression in the child is gender. Hamngton and Hassan (1958) and Kaslow, Rehm, and Siege1 (1984) found that latency-aged girls appear to be more likely to evidence depression than boys. More recently, Lefkowitz and Tesiny (1 985) reported that the prevalence rates for child depression were equal for both sexes in the general population. For children of divorce, however, studies indicate that the negative effects due to the separation of the parents are more severe for boys than for girls (Hetherington, 1979; Moreland, Schwebel, Fine, & Vess, 1982). The implication is that boys in these families may evidence more depressive symptomatology than girls. There is also substantial evidence from the literature that children of depressed parents are themselves depressed (Cooper, 1977; Frommer, 1968; Kaslow, 1983; Poznanski & Zrull, 1970; Welner, Welner, McCrary, & Leonard, 1977). It has been suggested that depression interferes with the parent’s ability to best meet the needs of the child, which results in subsequent psychopathology in the child in the form of depression or its equivalents (Philips, 1979). Rutter (1966), however, was unable to show a specific link between depression in the parent and depression in the child. The present study examined the relative impact of each of these three variables, time since separation, gender of the child, and moth- er’s depression on the child’s depression using multiple regression procedures. Because of the controversy apparent in the literature on the difficulties associated with the description and measurement of childhood depression (Cytryn & McKnew, 1972; Deuber, 1982; Huntley, 1985) it was important to obtain multiple measures of the child’s depression. This study utilized a child self-report measure, the
Developmental Features in Children of Divorce 155 Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs & Beck, 1977), and a conceptually-derived, mother-report measure based on the DSM Ill criteria for depression. METHODS Subjects The sample consisted of 53 children, 29 boys and 24 girls between the ages of six and ten, and their mothers. The average age of the children was 7.80 years. These children were the eldest child in the family and the mothers were separated or divorced at the time of participation. The average length of time since the parent’s separation was 52.6 months. In addition, the mother was the only adult in the home. Average income for these families was $1614 per month and the average education for the mother was 13.9 years. Exclusion criteria for the children included the following: (1) no previous diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction, mental retarda- tion, or autism, (2) no reported incidence of physical or sexual abuse, (3) no previous diagnosis of psychosis, and (4) the child was not currently seeing a therapist, counselor, or minister for any type of psychological or behavioral problem. Procedures Subjects were recruited by notices in the newspapers, flyers, radio and television announcements, and talks given at community facilities. Interested subjects phoned in for further information, and if they met the criteria they were sent a packet including a consent form and study measures to fill out and return. On return of these data, subjects were scheduled for an interaction task in the laboratory setting, which is not relevant to the present study. After completing the interaction, the child filled out the Children’s Depression Inventory with the assistance of the examiner. Instruments A. Completed by the Child Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs & Beck, 1977). The CDI, a self-report inventory of 27 depressive items, was
156 THE DIVORCE PROCESS utilized to assess the child’s self-report of his or her level of depres- sion. The higher the total score, which ranges from 0 to 54, the more symptomatic the child was by his or her self-report. The CDI has acceptable levels of reliability and validity. B. Completed by the Mother Symptom Checklist (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973). The SCE-90 is a self-report symptom inventory of 90 items with established validity and reliability which assesses various types of psychopathology. Each ite.m can be rated on a 5-point scale of distress ranging from “not at all” to “extremely.” The depression subscale of this measure was used to assess depression in the mother. DSM-III Criteria for Major Depression. This derived measure consisted of the nine symptoms listed in the DSM-111 as criteria for major depression. Mothers were asked to indicate which of the nine items described the recent behavior of the child. Scores on the depression symptoms could range from 0 to 9. RESULTS Means, standard deviations, and bivariate correlations between all variables are displayed in Table 1. Note the lack of significance between the child’s self report (CDI) and the mother’s report of depression symptoms in the child. Due to this lack of correspon- dence, each variable was analyzed as a separate independent variable in subsequent analyses. Separate multiplc regression analyses was used to examine the relative impact of the predictor variables in the CDI and on the depression symptoms. In the first analysis, the CDI score was regressed on gender, the mother’s SCL-90 depression subscale, and time (in months) since the separation or divorce. Variables were entered into the equation as listed in a fixed order. Referring to Table 2, it is apparent that with all three variables in the equation, slightly more than 11% of the variance in CDI scores was accounted for, though the F-value of 2.054 for all three variables in was not significant. Of the three variables, only gender accounted for a significant proportion of the variance (F = 5.371; p < .025). Comparison of the mean CDI scores for both sexes revealed that boys scored significantly higher on this measure (boys: M = 9.59, SD = 6.61;girls:M = 5.83,SD = 3.76;t = 2.32,p< .05). Developmental Features in Children of Divorce 157 Table 1 Correlation Icatrlx, Means, and Standard Deviations For All Variables 1. CDI .I29 -.309* .lo6 .lo3 7.89 5.78 2. DSH TI1 .024 .I46 .502*. 1.48 1.44 3. Gender -.039 -.015 .43 .50 4. Time .130 53.00 32.33 5. XZ-90 Depr. 1.26 .80 Table 2 Reqression Analysis for CDI Heasure Predictor Variables E~ 2 change E Gender .095 ,095 5.371 .025 SU-PO Depr. .lo5 .010 2.931 .063 Time - 112 .007 2.054 .119 In the second analysis, the mother's report of the child's depression on the DSM I11 measure was regressed on gender, mother's depression, and time, also in that order. Results are displayed in Table 3. The overall equation was highly significant (F = 8.861, p < .0001), accounting for almost 35% of the vari- ance in the DSM 111 measure. However, inspection of Table 3 THE DIVORCE PROCESS Table 3 Regreasion Rnalysls For DSa 111 Depression Symptoms Predictor Variables - n2 R~ change P - E Gender .001 .OOl .031 .861 Time .347 .DO6 8.861 .OOO reveals that the mother's depression score on the SCL-90 alone accounted for 34% of the variance, with gender and time making only a negligible contribution. In this study boys reported more depression than girls. This appears to be in contrast to recent data regarding prevalence rates of depression in children from the general population. Lekowitz and Tesiny (1985), for example, found no sex differences in the prevalence of depression in a large sample of latency-aged children, suggesting that prior to puberty sex is not yet a risk factor for depression. Although this finding may hold for the general popula- tion, the current data suggest that boys who have lost a father to divorce may be at higher risk for depression than girls. This is consistent with other reports that boys are more likely to experience greater negative effects overall than girls following divorce (Hetherington, 1979). In examining the mother's report of depression in the child, the only variable to account for a significant proportion of the variance was her own level of depression. If the mother was depressed, she tended to report her child as depressed. This finding is also consistent with those of other investigators who have shown that maternal depression significantly impacts the mother's perception Developmental Features in Children of Divorce 159 of child maladjustment (Forehand, Wells, McMahon, Griest, & Rogers, 1982). The amount of time elapsed since the parental breakup was un- related to either the child's self-report of depressive symptoms or the mother's ratings. It may be that this finding is an artifact of char- acteristics of the present sample, in that the mean length of time since the separation was over four years. However, supplementary anal- yses comparing the depression measures for children whose parents had been separated for over two years with those whose parents had been separated less than two years revealed no significant differ- ences. Nor were the depression scores distributed in a curvilinear fashion, as suggested by reports that adjustment difficulties peak at about one year following the breakup, and then become less severe over time (Hetherington, 1979). Instead, it appears that the passage of time itself may be a less important predictor of the adjustment of the child, as has been argued by Wallerstein and Kelly (1980), than other factors such as the mother's adjustment, the child's social network (Huntley & Phelps, 1985), patterns of parent-child inter- action (Phelps & Slater, 1985) and the child's gender. Interestingly, the correlation between the child's report of his or her own depression and the mother's report of depression in the child was not significant. Similar findings have been reported by Kazdin, French, and Unis (1983) for children on an inpatient unit, by Schultz, Rehm, and Siegel (1985), and by Kaslow, Rehm, Pollak, and Siegel (1985). They found that measures of depression completed by the children tended not to correlate with the same or related measures completed by the parents. While the lack of correspondence between child and parent ratings may bring into question the validity of the measures, it may also be that the different ratings reflect reliable and valid differences between the parent's and child's perception in identifying and reporting the child's depressive symptoms. Future research could address this question by incorporating additional sources of data such as teacher, peer, and interviewer reports. REFERENCES Caplan. M. & Douglas. V. (1969). Incidence of parental loss in childrcn with depressive mood. Jo~crnal uf Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 10, 225-232. Child. A (1980). Depression in children: Reasons and risks. Pediatric Nursing, July-August, 9-13. 160 THE DIVORCE PROCESS Cooper, S. (1977). The children of psychiatric patients: Clinical findings. British Journal of Psychiatry. 131, 514-522. Cytryn, L., & McKnew, D. (1972). Proposed classification of childhood depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 149-155. Derogatis, L., Lipman, R., & Covi, L. (1973). The SCL-90: An outpatient psychiatric rating scale. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 9, 13-28. Deuber, C. (1982). Depression in the school-aged child: Implications for primary care. Nurse Practitioner, September, 26-30. Frommer, E. (1968). Depressive illness in children. British Journal of Psychiatry, Special Publications No. 2, 117-136. Forehand, R., Wclls, K.C., McMahon, R.J., Griest, D.. & Rogers, T. (1982). Maternal perception of maladjustment in clinic-referred children: An extension of earlier research. Journal oJBehaviora1 Asse.rsmen1. 4, 14.5-151. Harrington, M. & Hassan, J. (1958). British Journal of Medical Psychology. 31, 43. Hetherington, E.M. (1979). Divorce: A child's perspective. American Psychologist. 34, 851-858. Hctherington. E., Cox, M. & Cox, R. (1978). The aftermalh of divorce. In J.H. Stevens and M. Mathews (Eds.), Mother-Child, Father-Child Relarions, Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Huntley, D.K. (1985). Depression in children from single-parent families and its correlares. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Houston. Huntley, D.K. & Phelps. R.E. (1985, April). Depression and social contacrs of children from one-parent families. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association, Austin, Texas. Kaslow, N. (1983). Depression in children and their parents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Houston. Kaslow. N., Rehm. L., & Seigel, A. (1984). Social-cognitive and cognitive correlates of depression in children. Journal ojAbnorma1 Child Psychology. 12, 605-620. Kaslow. N., Rehm. L., Pollak, S., & Siegel, A. (1985). Attributio~~alstyle and self-control behavior in depressed and nundepressed children and their parents. Paper submitted for publication. Kazdin, A.E., French. N.H.. & Unis, AS. (1983). Child, mother, and father evaluations of depression in psychiatric inpatient children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 11. 167-180. Kovacs, M. & Beck, A.T. (1977). An empirical-clinical approach toward a definition of childhood depression. In I.G. Schulterbrandt and A. Raskin (Eds.), Depression in childhood: Diagnosis, trearmenr, and conceptual models, New York: Raven Press. Lcfkowitz, M.M., & Tesiny, E.P. (1985). Depression in children: Prevalence and correlates. Journol of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 53, 647-656. Phelps, R.E. & Slater, M.A. (1985). Sequential interactions that discriminate high- and low-problem single mother-son dyads. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 53, 684-692. Philips. 1. (1979). Childhood depression: lntcrpersonal interactions and depressive phenom- ena. American Journal of Psychiatry. 136, 51 1-515 Poznanski. E. & Zrull, J. (1970). Childhood depression. Archives of General Psychiatry. 23, 8-15. Rickard, K., Forehand. R.. Atkcson, B., & Lopez, C. (1982). An examination of the relationship of marital satisfaction and divorce with parent-child interactions. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Il(l), 61-65. Rutter, M. (1966). Children of sick pnrenrs. Oxford University Press: Oxford. Schultz, H., Rehm, L., & Seigel, A. (1985). The assessment of depression in children and mothers. Paper submitted for publication. Developmental Features in Children of Divorce 161 US. Bureau of the Census. (1980). Census of population: General, social. and economic characteristics. Washington, D.C., PC(1)-CI Wallerstein. J.. & Kelly. J. (1980). Surviving the breakup: How children actually cope wirh divorce. New York: Basic Books. Welner, 2.. Welner. A., McCrary. D.. &Leonard, M. (1977). Psychopathology in children of inpatients with depression: A controlled study. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders. 164, 408-413.

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