Questions about Tiger Syndrome

biology question and need the explanation and answer to help me learn.

Please answer the following questions about Tiger Syndrome.
Requirements: As needed
GROUPWORK 3 Molecular Biology of Cancer 3 Oct 2023
GROUP Number ___________
Participating group members:
Case Study: Tiger Syndrome
You are a scientist studying two related congenital diseases that lead to cancer, Noonan syndrome and Tiger syndrome. Some cases of Noonan syndrome are caused by dominant activating mutations in the MAP kinase-kinase-kinase protein Raf. The genetic bases of Tiger syndrome are unknown.

Your team is involved in a clinical trial, which finds that drugs that inhibit Raf improve the outcomes in cancer patients with Noonan syndrome. You find that Tiger syndrome patients also have favorable response to the treatment, so you sequence the gene for Raf in several patients, but find no mutations.

Based on what you know about the MAP kinase pathway, you sequence the Sos gene in Tiger syndrome patients. You find that 5 out of 10 patients in your trial have a mutation that changes the amino acid Thr266 to Lys (T266K). Introducing this mutant version of Sos into cells in culture leads to increased levels of phosphorylated ERK compared to controls.
The mutations that cause Noonan and Tiger syndrome are dominant. How do you think the T266K mutation in Sos might alter its activity?
How does this mutation affect the components of the MAP kinase pathway upstream of Sos? How does it affect the downstream components?
The other five individuals with Tiger syndrome in the trial don’t have mutations in Raf or Sos. Which components of the pathway would you sequence next, and why?

Fill in with name of protein or domain:
G. 0.
H. 1.
I. 2.
J. 3.
K. 4.
L. 5.
M. 6.
N. 7.
O. 8. What is transcribed by the protein shown in 7?
P. __________________________

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