Psychometric properties of academic success reliability and validity evaluation

research & summaries case study and need the explanation and answer to help me learn.

in today’s society, there is an immense pressure on college students to excel academically and professionally. many students feel that their success is directly linked to their future job prospects and financial stability. this pressure can lead to a constant state of stress and anxiety, as students feel that they must always be working towards their goals.
Requirements:
Psychometric Properties of Academic Success Reliability and Validity Evaluation
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for Psychological Statistics

INTRODUCTION
College is a time of growth, exploration, and self-discovery. It’s also a time when students are expected to prepare for their future careers, which can be a significant source of stress and anxiety. While striving for success is admirable, it’s essential to recognize the impact that anxiety can have on a student’s mental health and academic performance. Students in their college years face numerous challenges. One of the most difficult issues they confront is coping with anxiety, particularly study anxiety as per Vitasari, Abdul Wahab, Othman, Herawan, and Sinnadurai. However, success is mostly determined by the drive to succeed as stated by McClelland, which has been defined as the desire to accomplish something difficult, excel, and overcome barriers in order to reach a goal, Murray.
In today’s society, there is an immense pressure on college students to excel academically and professionally. Many students feel that their success is directly linked to their future job prospects and financial stability. This pressure can lead to a constant state of stress and anxiety, as students feel that they must always be working towards their goals. Academic achievement is the criterion used to judge students’ academic development, according to Ahmad and Bruinsma, making it vital to understand the variables responsible for determining, predicting, mediating, or causing variance in academic achievement. Scholars agree that academic achievement and success in college are related to both cognitive skills, such as IQ scores and academic ability, as reported by McEwan and Goldenberg; Pitt, and personal/non-cognitive skills, such as motivational factors by Guay and Radi, and situational factors by Rezazadeh and Tavakoli.
According to Khoshlessan and Das (2017), college students’ anxiety is a significant element in their learning process. Because dealing with anxiety is a factor in a successful student’s learning process, researchers have looked into areas surrounding this idea to help provide solutions and, potentially, turn anxiety into motivation. Exams and workload are two academic worries that students have outside of the classroom, according to Altiok and Ustun, Gof and Lo, and Magnussen and Amundson. Some students’ primary source of stress is “worrying about grades” (Shaban et al., 2012). Poor grades, failure to achieve desired grades, or failure to fulfill family expectations in this respect might leave students feeling inadequate and vulnerable to depression (Dzurec, Allchin, & Engler, 2007). Some students’ stress levels are increased by perceived severe workloads related to course requirements paired with personal obligations. Money worries and a lack of spare time are examples of personal sources of stress. Students struggle to get the necessary social support and relaxation that interpersonal interactions bring due to the rigors of balancing study with employment, home life, and other commitments. Many students, according to studies (Magnussen & Amundson, 2003), must work in order to sustain themselves. This further reduces their free time. Concern over having access to quality daycare options can be a source of personal stress for students who are also parents.
Concerns have been raised about the links between anxiety, positive affect, and negative affect. According to Afolayan, Donald, Onasoga, Babafemi, and Juan; Mazzone; McDonald; Neil & Donald; anxiety symptoms are linked to memory loss and cognitive dysfunction, which may affect general wellbeing, social life, academic performance, learning ability, and the formation of social relationships. In general, a student feels anxious before a test or exam, but it only becomes a problem when the condition is severe (Mc Donald, 2010), which may happen as a result of the student’s prior experiences with the tests or exams, faculty pressure, the amount of work assigned to the student, poor time management, family issues and beliefs, etc. It has been demonstrated that positive affect fosters well-being and life satisfaction, which may further improve quality of life, as well as a student’s social life and academic achievement. In a study conducted in the 1980s, Watson, Clark, and Tellegen found that mental diseases like anxiety and depression are associated with both positive and negative effects. Later, Cassady and Johnson made it abundantly clear that the negative aspects of anxiety have a negative impact on academic performance. This was supported by a study that found a direct correlation between academic performance and anxiety levels (Samaranayake & Fernando, 2011), indicating that both positive and negative effects should be taken into account when examining the relationship between anxiety and academic performance.
Stress and coping have reportedly been one of the subjects that Filipino psychologists have studied the most, according to a previous analysis of the country’s published psychological research (Bernardo, 1997). However, there was scarcely any research in that review that focused on the stress experiences of Filipino students, a situation that has slightly changed over the past ten years thanks to the release of various studies on Filipino students’ experiences with stress. This finding is consistent with a global pattern where studies on stress among higher education students were conducted much later than those on stress in other populations (Michie, Glachan, & Bray, 2001). Research on stress in higher education students has grown over the past 20 years as a reflection of this pattern in other nations, and psychologists now have a better understanding of the variety of stressors for students (Robotham & Julian, 2006) and factors associated with students’ stress (Beiter et al., 2015).
The stress levels of higher education students have also been measured using a variety of psychological assessment tools, and generic stress measures have been modified or validated for use in particular college student populations (Camacho, Cordero, & Perkins, 2016; Chan & Bernardo, 2017). The number of studies on Filipino students’ experiences with stress that have been published has increased in a similar manner. Most of these studies inquire into the factors associated with the experience of stress, including the sources of stress (Calaguas, 2012; Pengpid, Peltzer, & Ferrer, 2014), responses to stress (Dy, Espiritu-Santo, Ferido, & Sanchez, 2015; Labrague et al., 2017), and various psychological and educational correlates of stress (Calaguas, 2011; Pengpid et al., 2014; Reyes et al., 2016; Tamanal, Park, & Kim, 2017). Studies on the stress-related experiences of nursing students in the Philippines have been published more frequently lately (e.g., Labrague, 2014; Labrague et al., 2017), which may be related to the country’s steadily rising nursing program enrollment. A few research (e.g., Gingrich, 2009; Sta. Maria et al., 2015) have examined stress-related experiences as signs of more severe psychological issues in students. It’s interesting to note that despite the rise in studies published on the subject of Filipino students’ experiences with stress, there appear to be more studies with Filipino-American students (e.g., Nadal, Pituc, Johnston, & Esparrago; 2010; Wei, Ku, & Liao, 2011), suggesting that there is room for additional research on the stress-related experiences of Filipino students.
The development of human resources’ most important component is education. The assessment of student achievement in a variety of academic topics is known as performance in school. Typically, classroom assessments are used by educators to assess student achievement, performance, graduation rates, and test scores on normative assessments. Learning abilities, parental background, and other factors all have an impact on pupils’ academic performance. Infrastructure for learning, instructor quality, and peer influence as a guide for measuring the effectiveness of secondary education, state and federal education officials gather graduation statistics. Moreover, Delelis (2019) emphasized the need of having qualified teachers in the teaching profession and claimed that the success of any program is dependent on the teacher’s capacity to facilitate learning.
The entire structure decreases if this component fails. As a result, education implementation, selection, planning, and supervision will be impacted. Nigeria’s economic crisis had an effect on the educational system and significantly lowered the standard of education provided in the nation (Olabiyi and Abayomi, 2010).
The evaluation of a students’ standing within a university, on the other hand, is highly dependent on their academic performance. According to Husaini (2023) several key factors exert a vital influence on students’ academic accomplishment. These factors include the initial grades upon admission, the extent of familial support, student gender, overall Grade Point Average (GPA).
When hiring recent graduates, one of the key criteria that employers look at is academic achievement. A variety of factors can have an impact on a student’s academic performance. But, in the current circumstances, the most common causes are: parenting Styles, where a supporting approach has the anticipated impact on students, characteristics of the students show that laziness is a prevalent issue for today’s generation, and lastly, lack of motivation has the greatest impact on students’ academic performance. According to this study, a student’s environment has a significant impact on whether or not they perform well academically. A student should be skilled at managing their time so that they can balance their academics with other commitments. Time management today needs to be more effective. It is challenging to adapt to the present environment, which is difficult for educators as well as learners. a parent ought to, provide their child with moral support and motivation. Teachers should also make the most of each student’s potential and reliable internet connection.
College students who are striving for success and battling anxiety are not alone. It’s important for students to recognize the impact that anxiety can have on their mental health and academic performance and to develop healthy coping mechanisms to manage their stress. By prioritizing their mental health and seeking support when needed, college students can thrive both academically and personally.
Through its innovative, community-based educational approach, Cavite State University – Silang Campus prepares high-calibre professionals at the undergraduate and bachelor’s levels. The purpose of our research is to determine the relation of anxiety and students’ successfulness with their academics. Because anxiety is unavoidable in many facets of people’s lives, especially academics for students, success occurs when a person fully adjusts to their surroundings in order to survive. Furthermore, the study aimed to develop healthy coping strategies for anxiety among psychology college students at Cavite State University – Silang Campus.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
THEORY
Achievement Goal Theory (Dweck, 1986; Elliot, 1999; Nicholls, 1984, 1989) is the foundation of achievement goal theories is the idea that differences in how people see their own competence and define successful accomplishments are crucial antecedents for comprehending young performance motivational processes (Duda, 2001). According to Nicholls (1984), a person’s perception of their own abilities can be classified as high, poor, or relative to others or their past performance. Two different achievement goal states (i.e., task vs. ego involvement) are supported by these conceptions of ability, and they influence how people define success in achievement settings (Harwood, Spray, & Keegan, 2008). People who feel more competent as a result of increasing their own level of proficiency may be considered to be task-involved, whereas people who feel more competent as a result of outperforming others are thought to be ego-involved. According to achievement goal theory, people’s levels of involvement with task or ego goals may evolve when engaging in achievement-related tasks. That is, at any point of task involvement, they can be more or less task- and ego-involved. In other words, once a person has reached a certain level of cognitive development in late childhood and beyond, they can vary in their degree of task and ego orientation. It is assumed that the likelihood of being task- and/or ego-involved is influenced by dispositional tendencies or overall tendency to respond to situations in stable, predictable ways regarding these states of goal involvement. It is crucial to note that these viewpoints are typically orthogonal. On the other hand, goal setting is an ego-conducive way that would entail a focus on typically referenced goals (the majority of which are likely outcome-oriented), feedback that is more critical and marked by social comparison, goal accomplishment evaluation that makes the person particularly aware of and concerned about his or her relative ability, and the sources and nature of the recognition that is provided when goals are met (or not met) would help. Furthermore, in an ego-centered goal-setting program, individual choice and the participant’s participation in the process would probably take a second position.
The Biology of Fear- and Anxiety-Related Behaviors, according to Thierry Steimer, states that increased alertness, anticipation, autonomic and neuroendocrine activation, as well as specific behavioral patterns, are characteristics of anxiety. It is a psychological, physiological, and behavioral state generated in both animals and humans by a danger to well-being or survival. This makes modifications possible that make it easier to deal with unfavorable or unexpected circumstances. Moreover, pathological anxiety affects one’s capacity to deal effectively with obstacles in life. In this article, the biology of fear and anxiety will be examined from a systemic (brain-behavior relationships, neuronal circuitry, and functional neuroanatomy) and cellular/molecular (neurotransmitters, hormones, and other biochemical factors) perspective. Vulnerability to psychopathology appears to be a consequence of predisposing factors (or traits), resulting in multiple gene-environment interactions during development (particularly during the perinatal period) and experience. As a result, today’s conception of emotions is one in which they are believed to exist at three distinct yet interconnected levels: the mental or psychological level, the (neuro)physiological level, and the behavioral level. Even the most basic emotions, like fear, contain these three complementary aspects. A variety of adaptive or defensive behaviors that are intended to escape from the source of danger or the cause of motivational conflict are expressed as a result of fear or anxiety. These actions are influenced by the environment and the species’ repertoire. When escape from threat is an option, active coping techniques are adopted, and the autonomic alterations linked to these active measures are primarily mediated by sympathetic activation (hypertension, tachycardia). This is the fight-or-flight reaction that Cannon originally addressed. Different coping strategies to various types of stressors believed to be mediated by particular brain circuits.
James Lange Theory of Emotion, “Fear and Anxiety as an Adaptive Response”. According to the James-Lange Theory, physiological sensations including heart rate and blood pressure serve as the foundation for emotional experiences. When encountered with a situation that puts one’s survival in danger, fear and anxiety can be an adaptive response. People go through a sort of fight or flight reaction. Emotional expression is mostly controlled by sensory feedback, moderate to mild anxiety. It is evident that extreme levels of anxiety and fear can harm psychological health, cause errors in reasoning, and interfere with memory and focus. However, there is evidence that suggests that mild anxiety can have an adaptive purpose. It is proposed that the emergence of coping mechanisms requires mild anticipatory anxiety related to realistic dangers. A reasonable reaction to specific occurrences or threats in one’s life, from an existentialist viewpoint, is moderate anxiety. Anxiety can be a driving force towards self-improvement or situational adaptation.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Foreign Literature & Studies
Study of Achievement Motivation in Relation to Academic Achievement of Students
This study was to examine the implications of motivation on individuals. Motivation is the activation of goal-oriented behavior. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but, theoretically, it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. This study refers to human motivation. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in the basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific need such as eating and resting, or a desired object, hobby, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism. Motivation is related to, but distinct from, emotion. According to the literature, achievement motivation is a subjective and internal psychological drive, enabling individuals to pursue work they perceive to be valuable and prompting them to reach their goals. The literature is anchored on Future time perspective theory which stems from Lewin’s (1935) psychology and Achievement Motivation theory by Atkinson, 1966. The study revealed that individuals who are intrinsically motivated to learn do so for the pleasure of learning, rather than for external rewards while those who are extrinsically motivated to learn, are motivated to learn for external rewards that learning will bring. Also, students with high academic motivation are more likely to have increased levels of academic achievement and have lower dropout rates. It is generally seen that achievement motivated people evidenced a significantly higher rate of advancement in their company compared to others. It was therefore recommended that parents, teachers and employers should endeavor to promote and encourage academic motivation in students from an early age seeing the importance it plays in forming self-concepts, values and beliefs that students hold about themselves.

Relationship Between Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement of Grade Ten Students of Shirka Woreda, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
In a study conducted by Birhanu Moges Alemu and Tilahun Feyssa (2020) wherein they examined relationships between test anxiety and academic achievement among secondary school students, showed cognitive factors contribute more to test anxiety than affective factors. Furthermore, it also suggests that female students have higher test anxiety levels than male students. The study indicated that test anxiety is one of the variables responsible for students’ underachievement and poor performance, however it may be addressed by offering students with proper training in coping with test anxiety-causing circumstances.
The Role of Sociocultural Factors in Student Achievement Motivation: A Cross-Cultural Review
Motivation is an essential determinant of academic learning, educational choices, and career decisions during adolescence and early adulthood. While achievement motivation has been widely studied across Western populations, recent work has emphasized the importance of examining the universality versus cultural specificity of motivation constructs across countries or diverse cultures. This article is a systematic review of the current discourse surrounding developmental and gender differences in student motivation in the disciplines of mathematics and English, offering comparisons of how these patterns are deployed within Western and East Asian countries. Guided by expectancy–value theory, this review focuses on ability self-concept and task values as two prominent motivational constructs. The authors first examine age and gender differences in the development of ability, self-concept and task values among those from Western and East Asian countries from primary school to secondary school. Next, the sociocultural and contextual factors driving developmental and gender differences in motivation are discussed. The article concludes by summarizing the limitations of existing literature and suggesting new lines of inquiry to advance knowledge in cross-cultural studies on student achievement motivation.
Sociocultural and Ecological Perspectives on Achievement Motivation
The role of the proximal setting has received a lot of attention in achievement motivation research. As a result, the functions of more proximal sociocultural and environmental elements have been overlooked. Motivation, on the other hand, does not exist in a social vacuum; it is embedded in pervasive settings such as broader culture (values, beliefs, and conventions) and social ecology (economic and political systems, interpersonal surroundings, and physical environment). This essay argues that including sociocultural and ecological views in motivation research is crucial. More precisely, the goals are to (a) justify why cultural and ecological perspectives are needed, (b) give a preliminary conceptual framework that may account for the critical roles of sociocultural and ecological elements that underpin motivation and learning, and (c) present a tentative conceptual framework that could account for the critical roles of sociocultural and ecological factors that support motivation and learning.
Anxiety and Learning
High levels of stress and anxiety may affect cognitive functioning at the neurological level, limiting students’ capacity to engage in complex thinking, access old memories, create new, complicated memories, problem solve, and sustain concentration. Thus, anxiety inhibits learning and academic achievement on a biological level.
Relationship Between Achievement Motivation, Mental Health and Academic Success in University Students
According to Mahdavi (2023) Academic success is a key concern for students in medical sciences, as they often face intense mental stress due to the demanding training system. This stress can contribute to the development of psychological and mental disorders which in turn may affect their academic performance and overall well-being. The study aims to assess the relationships between mental health, achievement motivation and academic achievement among students in medical sciences. The findings reveal a significant correlation between mental health and achievement motivation. indicating that students with higher levels of achievement motivation are more likely to succeed academically. In the light of these findings, it is imperative to prioritize and support students’ achievement and mental health as essential factors in promoting their academic success.

Predicting academic success in higher education: literature review and best practices
According to Alyahyan and Düştegör (2020) students’ success is crucial for educational institutions and they often use it to measure their performance. Recognizing students who may be at risk and implementing proactive measures can greatly improve their success. In recent years, there has been widespread use of machine learning techniques for predicting success. However, these methods are primarily accessible to educators with expertise in computer science and artificial intelligence, limiting their widespread adaptation within the educational community. In previous studies several factors have been examined regarding their influence on predicting students’ academic achievement. These factors encompass not only academic performance but also encompass students’ demographics, engagement in e-learning and psychological attributes. These factors have been found to be commonly reported in literature as influential predictors of students’ success.
An Achievement Motivation and Academic Anxiety of School Going Students
According to Chauhan Ajay (2016) the study findings highlight notable disparities in achievement motivation based on various demographic factors such as gender, urban/rural location and school type. Specifically, the results show that male students exhibit higher levels of motivation compared to their female counterparts. Additionally, students from urban areas demonstrate higher motivation levels compared to students from rural areas. Furthermore, the study reveals that students attending private schools exhibit higher motivation levels compared to students in government schools. These findings imply that demographic factors, namely, gender, urban/rural location and school type, may play significant roles in shaping students’ academic motivation. The differences observed in motivation levels among these groups suggest that these factors can potentially influence students’ academic success. Understanding and addressing these disparities in achievement motivation can help create a supportive environment that encourages academic success and meets the diverse needs of students in different educational settings.

Academic success: Is it just about the grades?
The researchers who investigate academic success often measure it through assessment grades. However, this assumption is challenged in this study which aims to explore students’ perspectives on the definition of academic success and the factors they consider vital for achieving it (Cachia, 2018). The research involved sixteen undergraduate Psychology students from a modern university in London, United Kingdom, who participated in three focus groups. The students described academic success as a combination of completing the learning process, acquiring knowledge in their subject area and developing skills that are valuable for future employment. The analysis of their response revealed two main themes: internal factors such as motivation, self-directed learning and personal skills and external factors such as the content of teaching and the support available to students. The researchers concluded that in order to achieve academic success and improve student employability skills, it is necessary to integrate intrinsic elements into the required curriculum rather than presenting them as optional additions.
Effects of Sports and Student Motivation on Academic Success
According to Erdmann (2021) Over the five decades, there has been a significant increase in high school sports participation among students. As a result, it is crucial for schools, parents, and students to understand the research on how sports participation impacts academic success. Previous studies have shown that sports can have a positive effect on academic achievement while others have emphasized the strong correlation between intrinsic motivation and academic success. Additionally, research indicated that sports participation can enhance motivation to perform academically. The current research study aims to bridge the gap between sports participation, student motivation, and academic success. The findings of the study suggest that there is no direct relationship between sports participation and academic success. However, there is a strong positive correlation between overall motivation and academic success. The study concludes that promoting environments that enhance competence and relatedness, including participation in sports, can contribute to increase student motivation and ultimately lead to improved academic success.
Local Literature & Studies
Anxiety and Depression Among Filipino College Students
A study conducted by Rowalt Alibudbud (2021) determined the relationship and the extent of adverse academic experiences, anxiety, and depression among Filipino College students in Metro Manila. Using a randomized cross-sectional study, with a total of 232 adult college students participating in the study, showed that College students at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders were 35% and 47.2%, respectively. Students experiencing difficulties coping with their studies have up to five times higher risk for depression and anxiety.
Endeavors towards Academic Success: An Investigation of Underprivileged Student’s Life Experience
Galgo (2020) emphasizes the crucial role of motivation in the academic achievement of underprivileged students. The research focused on the experiences of these students and how they navigate the challenges imposed by poverty in order to achieve their educational goals. The findings of the study reveal that poverty has a significant impact on the academic performance and well-being of underprivileged students. These students often encounter difficulties in meeting school requirements and exhibit higher levels of truantry which make their educational journey even more difficult. Despite these challenges, the research emphasizes the remarkable resilience, drive and self-motivation displayed by disadvantaged students in overcoming the hardship of poverty. They possess a strong desire to excel academically as a way of acknowledging their families’ sacrifices and breaking the cycle of poverty. Poverty itself serves as a powerful motivator, propelling these students to actively pursue their aspirations and strive for a brighter future. The findings underscore the importance of tailored support, interventions and resources to empower underprivileged students and enable them to achieve their educational goals.
Test Anxiety, Perfectionism, and Academic Performance of Academic Achievers
According to Lim et al. (2015) there is a notable indication that academically students are potentially influenced by external expectations, particularly those established by significant figures such as parents. This implies that these students are motivated to meet the standards and expectations imposed upon them by external forces. In order to fully comprehend the complex interplay between perfectionism, test anxiety and academic performance, it is imperative to develop a comprehensive understanding of the role that external expectations play in the pursuit of academic success. Perfectionism, in this context, refers to the tendency to strive for flawlessness and uphold high personal standards. It involves striving for perfection, having a strong desire for excellence, and actively avoiding mistakes in various areas of life including academics.This understanding will provide valuable insights into how these expectations motivate and shape the behaviors and performance of academically successful students.
College Academic Performance of Teacher Education Students in a State University of Northern Philippines
According to Pasca (2012), College poses a challenging hurdle. It’s a new world that high school graduates who hope to get a degree would join with great excitement and trepidation. College students’ success depends on their ability to manage the academic, financial, and psychosocial challenges that come with transitioning from high school to university life. From developing study habits and improving time management skills to balancing work and extracurricular activities, college students must learn how to balance their responsibilities to succeed academically and maximize their university experience. First-year students familiarize themselves with techniques to help them survive their university years to succeed in college. The high caliber of fundamental instruction they offer the University strengthens these tactics. Incoming college students proficient in Mathematics, English, and Science possess the knowledge, abilities, and attitudes necessary to handle the demands of academic work. As students work hard to achieve their objectives, their aptitude for taking on every academic task and level of competence may provide them with an advantage over those with less talent and proficiency. Additionally, by completing a program of school disciplines and engaging in independent work, freshmen can enhance their skills in writing abstracts, problem-solving, and logical thinking, which are critical for success in higher-level courses.
Role of Motivation on Academic Performance
According to Lamar (2020) being motivated helps students to develop a sense of curiosity and creativity which in turn enhances their desire to learn and actively participate in academic activities. Moreover, motivation was found to have a considerable impact on students’ academic performance, contributing to their persistence, enthusiasm, effort and determination to achieve their goals. The researchers hope that this research will provide valuable insights for students, parents, and teachers, enhancing their understanding of motivation and its implications in daily academic life.

TEST INSTRUMENT
Perceived Anxiety Scale
When the characteristics of anxiety are linked to academic or evaluation situations, we speak of test anxiety. The highly test anxious person worries about examinations and shows physiological reaction patterns that go along with worry. Worry is a cognitively demanding activity marked by self-preoccupation, self-depreciation, and concern over the consequences of poor performance. It would be expected to interfere with performance on complex tasks when the evaluative dimension is emphasized. Under neutral conditions, this interference should be either less potent or absent.
To use the concept of test anxiety empirically, an index of the variable is needed. A number of indices are now available. The first of these was the Test Anxiety Questionnaire (Mandler and S. Sarason, 1952) which consisted of a series of graphic rating scales. In 1958 I described the 21-item true-false Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) (Sarason, 1958). As a result of factor analyses and Item analyses, the TAS has since undergone a number of revisions. The first of the revisions involved “pruning,” items with marginal part-whole correlations were dropped.
The version that has been used during the past several years is the 37 item TAS. Because it was felt that a longer scale would increase sensitivity and reliability, new items were written and, together with the original items, administered to a large group of college students. Correlations of each item with total score (minus the item) were computed. The surviving items were subjected to a replication. The 37 resultIng items are presented in a Table. Test-retest reliabilities over 80 have been obtained for intervals of several weeks. Wagaman, Cormier,and Cormier (1975) have reported a test retest reliability coefficient of 87. The Figures present TAS score distributions of male and female undergraduates at the Cavite State University – Silang Campus. Table 2 presents the means, medians, standard deviatIons, and ranges for these distributions.
The TAS can be used in diverse ways. It has been employed as an independent variable so as to compare groups of extreme scorers in particular types of situations. It has also been employed as a dependent variable reflecting the operation of an experimental or clinical treatment. Examples of these uses will be given in succeeding sections.
The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a classic stress assessment instrument. The tool, while originally developed in 1983, remains a popular choice for helping us understand how different situations affect our feelings and our perceived stress. The questions in this scale ask about your feelings and thoughts during the last month. In each case, you will be asked to indicate how often you felt or thought a certain way. Although some of the questions are similar, there are differences between them, and you should treat each one as a separate question. The best approach is to answer fairly quickly. That is, don’t try to count up the number of times you felt a particular way; rather indicate the alternative that seems like a reasonable estimate (State of New Hampshire Employee Assistance Program, 1983).

TEST QUESTIONNAIRE
Below are statements, each followed by choices. The questions concern how often and how deeply/strongly you experience what is described in the statement. Please answer all the questions after each statement by circling numbers from 0 to 4. Please rate the following statements based on your experiences, using a scale of 0 to 4, where 0 indicates “never” and 4 indicates “very often.”
0 = Never 1 = Almost Never 2 = Sometimes
3 = Fairly Often 4 = Very Often
MOTIVATION:
1. I frequently succeed in my academic objectives.
0 1 2 3 4
2. I am motivated to actively engage in classroom activities and discussions.
0 1 2 3 4
3. Supportive relationships with teachers/professors positively impact my motivation for academic success.
0 1 2 3 4
4. Positive reinforcement and recognition from others motivate me to strive for academic success.
0 1 2 3 4
5. A stimulating learning environment enhances my motivation to achieve academic success.
0 1 2 3 4
6. Setting realistic expectations by teachers/professors positively influences my motivation.
0 1 2 3 4
7. The availability of resources (such as libraries, study materials, etc.) enhances my motivation for academic success.
0 1 2 3 4
8. Peer encouragement and collaboration motivate me to strive for academic success.
0 1 2 3 4
9. I believe that external rewards (such as scholarships, awards, etc.) positively impact my motivation for academic success.
0 1 2 3 4
10. A sense of competition with my peers motivates me to excel academically.
0 1 2 3 4
11. I am highly motivated to strive for success academically.
0 1 2 3 4
12. I believe that my motivation positively influences my academic performance.
0 1 2 3 4
13. Motivation plays a crucial role in my academic achievements.
0 1 2 3 4
14. I often find myself motivated to engage in independent study and go beyond the required coursework.
0 1 2 3 4
15. I often feel motivated to participate actively in class discussions and ask insightful questions.
0 1 2 3 4
16. I often believe that motivation impacts my academic success.
0 1 2 3 4
17. I have struggled with maintaining my motivation over a long period of time, such as during a particularly challenging semester or project.
0 1 2 3 4
18. I mostly have strategies that are effective in boosting my motivation when I am feeling discouraged or unmotivated.
0 1 2 3 4
19. I often feel that there are external factors that tend to impact my motivation levels, such as stress or lack of support from others.
0 1 2 3 4
20. I tend to think that I have to maintain my motivation and drive as I continue to pursue my academic goals.
0 1 2 3 4
21. I feel motivated when I put in necessary effort to succeed academically.
0 1 2 3 4
22. I think there is a correlation between my level of motivation and the grades I receive in my classes.
0 1 2 3 4
23. I feel that academic success is important to my future goals and aspirations.
0 1 2 3 4

24. I am inspired to keep working toward academic excellence in the future.
0 1 2 3 4
25. I feel that motivation plays a crucial role in my academic achievements.
0 1 2 3 4
PERFORMANCE:
26. I can work under pressure.
0 1 2 3 4
27. I experience struggle working under pressure.
0 1 2 3 4
28. I tend to make poor performances when I have many tasks.
0 1 2 3 4
29. Many tasks make me determined to finish the school works as soon as possible.
0 1 2 3 4
30. My past academic performances affect my next performances badly.
0 1 2 3 4
31. My past academic performances affect me to improve my next performances.
0 1 2 3 4
32. Working alone makes me more productive.
0 1 2 3 4

33. Working with a group makes me more productive.
0 1 2 3 4
34. I believe developing new strategies will be efficient for my performance.
0 1 2 3 4
35. I stick to my past routine in finishing my tasks.
0 1 2 3 4
36. Challenges help me improve my performance.
0 1 2 3 4
37. Uncertainty makes my performance poor.
0 1 2 3 4
38. I take criticism as a way to improve my academic performances.
0 1 2 3 4
39. I am quick to notice errors of my work and make a solution for it quickly.
0 1 2 3 4
40. Thinking of my future career makes my performance better.
0 1 2 3 4
41. I am slow to react to changes.
0 1 2 3 4
42. I can write while listening to discussion.
0 1 2 3 4
43. I find it difficult to do other things when focusing into one task.
0 1 2 3 4
44. I am easily distracted and forget that I am doing something.
0 1 2 3 4
45. I cannot stop the task until I think it is perfect.
0 1 2 3 4
46. I can submit my outputs without double checking its quality.
0 1 2 3 4
47. I believe my outputs should have a quality before passing it.
0 1 2 3 4
48. I tend to be dishonest just to have a high performance.
0 1 2 3 4
49. I consider honesty despite being uncertain to my score.
0 1 2 3 4
50. I can perform well with an empty stomach.
0 1 2 3 4
STRESS:
51. How often do you feel stressed?
0 1 2 3 4

52. How deeply stressed are you lately?
0 1 2 3 4
53. How deeply unwanted events affect you?
0 1 2 3 4
54. How strongly does stress affect your academic performance?
0 1 2 3 4
55. How strongly does stress affect your motivation?
0 1 2 3 4
56. How strongly do you cope well with stress?
0 1 2 3 4
57. How deeply stress affects you more negatively?
0 1 2 3 4
58. How deeply stress affects you more positively?
0 1 2 3 4
59. How often have you thought that your problems seemed too much, and you couldn’t conquer them?
0 1 2 3 4
60. How often do you feel you’re in control?
0 1 2 3 4
61. How often do you feel things are getting out of your control?
0 1 2 3 4
62. How often do you worry?
0 1 2 3 4
63. How strongly do you fear that you won’t be able to reach your goal?
0 1 2 3 4
64. How strongly do poor academic results affect you?
0 1 2 3 4
65. How often do you feel frustrated?
0 1 2 3 4
66. How often do you feel relaxed and rested?
0 1 2 3 4
67. How often do you feel pressured due to academic reasons?
0 1 2 3 4
68. How often do you spend time for yourself?
0 1 2 3 4
69. How strongly does stress affect your daily life?
0 1 2 3 4
70. How deeply stress affects your concentration and memory?
0 1 2 3 4

71. In the past month, how often have you felt that academic demands were overwhelming and caused you stress?
0 1 2 3 4
72. How frequently do you perceive that the burden of academic stress has taken a toll on your physical health?
0 1 2 3 4
73. How often have you felt a sense of being completely overwhelmed by the sheer amount of academic work you had to do?
0 1 2 3 4
74. How often have you felt that academic stress has hindered your capacity to derive enjoyment from various aspects of life?
0 1 2 3 4
75. How often do you find yourself experiencing anxiety and stress when reflecting upon your academic responsibilities?
0 1 2 3 4
ANXIETY:
76. I frequently experience anxiety related to upcoming exams or assignments.
0 1 2 3 4
77. I experience anxiety when it comes to speaking or presenting in front class.
0 1 2 3 4
78. Anxiety greatly affects my motivation to study and engage in academic activities.
0 1 2 3 4
79. I tend to make poor decisions due to anxiety when it comes to academic choices.
0 1 2 3 4
80. Academic expectations play a significant role in contributing to my anxiety levels.
0 1 2 3 4
81. Anxiety greatly affects my sleep patterns, resulting in fatigue during academic tasks.
0 1 2 3 4
82. I experience anxiety when interacting with professors.
0 1 2 3 4
83. Working on group projects or collaborative assignments induces anxiety.
0 1 2 3 4
84. I feel anxious when faced with time pressure during exams.
0 1 2 3 4
85. I feel anxious when asked to participate in research or practical activities.
0 1 2 3 4
86. Unexpected changes or challenges in my academic journey evoke anxiety.
0 1 2 3 4
87. Anxiety negatively impacts my ability to stay organized and keep track of academic deadlines.
0 1 2 3 4
88. I frequently experience anxiety related to academic performance evaluation such grades or GPA.
0 1 2 3 4
89. I feel anxious when receiving feedback or criticism on my academic performance.
0 1 2 3 4
90. Meeting high expectations from my family or peers regarding academic performance causes anxiety.
0 1 2 3 4
91. I feel anxious about asking questions or seeking clarification from teachers or professors.
0 1 2 3 4
92. I feel anxious about the impact of my academic performance on my future career prospects.
0 1 2 3 4
93. I am prone to feelings of anxiety when I engage in the act of comparing my academic achievements to those of my peers.
0 1 2 3 4
94. I find it challenging to concentrate and stay focused on academic tasks due to anxiety.
0 1 2 3 4
95. Anxiety affects my ability to effectively manage and balance extracurricular activities with my academic responsibilities.
0 1 2 3 4
96. How deeply anxious do you feel when the deadline is near?
0 1 2 3 4
97. How often do you get anxious?
0 1 2 3 4
98. How often does anxiety affect your studies?
0 1 2 3 4
99. How strongly does anxiety affect your studies?
0 1 2 3 4
100. How often were you able to cope with anxiety?
0 1 2 3 4

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Fear and Anxiety. (n.d.).
Harwood, C. G., & Thrower, S. N. (2020). Motivational climate in youth sport groups. In Elsevier eBooks (pp. 145–163).
Duda, J. L. (2004). Goal Setting and Achievement Motivation in Sport. In Elsevier eBooks (pp. 109–119).
Barrows, J. (2013). Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and College Exam Grades.
Basco, R. E., & Olea, M. T. (2013). Correlation between Anxiety Level and Academic Performance of BS Biology Freshmen Students. ResearchGate.
Mirawdali, S. (2018, June 28). Academic anxiety and its effects on academic performance.
Firose, M. M. (2020). Relationship between Achievement Motivation and Anxiety of Teenage Students.

Mohamad, N. (2021). The prevalence risk of anxiety and its associated factors among university students in Malaysia: a national cross-sectional study.
Naceanceno, K. D. (2021). A Comparison of Anxiety Levels Among College Students.
Husaini, Y. A., & Shukor, N. S. A. (2023). Factors Affecting Students’ Academic Performance: A review. ResearchGate. .
Navida, G. S. (2022). Mathematics Anxiety, Conception and Performance of the University Freshmen Students. International Journal of Scientific and Management Research, 05(03), 11–22.
Alemu, B. (2020, August 27). The relationship between test anxiety and academic achievement of grade ten students of Shirka Woreda, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. African Educational Research Journal – Net Journals. .
Education for Mental Health Toolkit – Anxiety and Learning | Advance HE. (n.d.).
Alibudbud, R. (2021). Academic Experiences as Determinants of Anxiety and Depression of Filipino College Students in Metro Manila. ResearchGate.
De Paz, P. I., Armstrong, T. D., & Mullon, R. a. F. (2021). LEVEL OF ANXIETY, FATIGUE AND DEPRESSION AMONG COLLEGE GRADUATING STUDENTS ENROLLED IN BILIRAN PROVINCE STATE UNIVERSITY. The Malaysian Journal of Nursing, 13(1).
Galgo, J. J. (2020). Endeavours towards Academic Success: An Investigation of Underprivileged Student’s Life Experience. Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences.
Bernardino, A. (2020, April 1). Role of Motivation on Academic Performance of Grade 11 Humanities and Social Sciences Strand Students: An Analysis.
Kim, D. (2016, August 16). What is Your Organization’s Core Theory of Success? – The Systems Thinker. The Systems Thinker.
Perera, R. (2021, May 8). Theory of success. Nerdynaut.
Verner-Filion, J., & Vallerand, R. J. (2016). Perceived Academic Performance Scale.
Testid. (n.d.).
Briones, S. K. F. (2022). Factors Affecting the Students’ Scholastic Performance: A Survey Study.

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