psychology statistics U2.4 DA and HW

psychology question and need the explanation and answer to help me learn.

These are homework for my psychology statistics assignments, worth 3 points each, but they are very important assignments that are part of my grades. so please put a lot of effort in those two documents attached, instructions are in the documents.
Requirements: 1 page
U2.4 DA
Answer the following questions on your own paper and upload your work into Canvas. Be sure to write your name on your answer sheet, number your answers, show your work, organize your work in a logical and readable order, and upload a single submission (if you have multiple pages of work, take pictures of your work and copy/paste/drop into a single document).
It has been demonstrated that cute babies and baby animals elicit positive feelings in people. Cute aggression is the urge by some people to squeeze, crush, or bite cute things, though these people don’t desire to cause harm. It is suggested that cute aggression is rooted in our evolutionary history, namely as a way to regulate the overwhelming feelings toward a cute baby so that one can engage in caretaking responsibilities. Cute aggression is believed to be an example of “dimorphous expression” of emotions in which a person who experiences one emotion expresses the opposite emotion (e.g., laughing when feeling sad; crying when feeling happy). In the case of cute aggression, a person feels overwhelmingly positive feelings but expresses this as wanting to aggress toward the cute baby or baby animal.
In this study, the researchers expected that people would self-report more cute aggression toward baby versus adult animals.
Brief Method
Participants were shown two sets of pictures, one set consisted of eight pictures of baby animals and the other set consisted of eight pictures of adult animals of the same species. Below are examples of the types of pictures participants viewed.
Participants were briefed about cute aggression, which the researchers referred to as “playful aggression,” and after each set of pictures were asked about their feelings of cute aggression toward the animals in each set.
Participants rated statements such as “I want to say something like, ‘grrr,’” “Saying ‘I want to eat you up!’ through gritted teeth,” etc. on a scale from 1 – 10 with lower scores indicating less cute aggression and higher scores indicating more cute aggression. The researchers averaged the scores so that each participant was given a single score for their ratings of the baby animals and a single score for their ratings of the full-grown animals.*
*This is a real study, but fictitious data.
Use the tutorial posted in Canvas to see how to run the analysis using VassarStats. Then, answer the questions below. To answer the questions, focus your attention on M1 and M2, t, P one-tailed, and P two-tailed in the output.
Data:
Answer the following questions.
Focus on the Data Summary output. What is the mean for the Baby Animals group? What is the mean for the Adult Animals group?
Focus on the Results output.
What is the value for t?
In statistics software packages, the program finds the EXACT p value. What you read on the Results output is the exact alpha that corresponds to the value for t. What is p if this had been a one-tailed test? What is p if this had been a two-tailed test?
Remember that the threshold for rejecting/retaining is p ≤ .05. Should the researcher reject or retain the null hypothesis if it had been a one-tailed test? Should the research reject or retain the null hypothesis if it had been a two-tailed test?
If there’s a difference in cute aggression toward baby animals versus adult animals, you should expect to see a significant difference between the two groups. According to the findings reported in the output above, was there a difference between the ratings of cute aggression when viewing baby animals versus adult animals if the test was one-tailed? If the test was two-tailed?
U2.4 HW
Answer the following questions on your own paper and upload your work into Canvas. Be sure to write your name on your answer sheet, number your answers, show your work, organize your work in a logical and readable order, and upload a single submission (if you have multiple pages of work, take pictures of your work and copy/paste/drop into a single document).
When people learn a new task, their performance usually improves when they are tested the next day, but only if they get at least 6 hours of sleep (Stickgold, Whidbee, Schirmer, Patel, & Hobson, 2000). The following data demonstrate this phenomenon, where higher values represent better performance. The participants learned a visual discrimination task on one day, and then were tested on the task the following day. One sample of participants (n = 16) were allowed to have at least 6 hours of sleep and the other sample (n = 12) were kept awake all night. Is there a significant difference between the two conditions? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05.
Step 1
State the hypotheses in symbols NOT words.
Step 2
Go to VassarStats.net | Select Distributions from the left-hand column of links | Select t-Distribution | Enter dftotal in the textbox.
In the mini-table, find alpha and one/two tailed.
IMPORTANT NOTE: The calculator provides the CL as a positive number! That means you need to impose a negative sign if warranted.
Step 3
Calculate estimated standard error.
Calculate the test statistic.
If you need to find the formulas for these tests, view the formula sheet in the Course Resources button on the landing page of Canvas.
Step 4
Step 5
Calculate effect size.
Interpret effect size: is there no effect size, a small effect size, a moderate effect size, or a large effect size?
Determine if you made an inferential error in step 4.
Is the result sufficient to conclude that performance on the visual discrimination task is different depending on the amount of sleep a person has?

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