mgt 404- 2937

management question and need guidance to help me learn.

Requirements: in file
Selected CasesLINCOLNHOSPITAL:THIRD-PARTYINTERVENTION*Soonaftertheelectionofanewchiefofsur-gery,thepresidentofLincolnHospitalfacedacrisis.Lincoln,a400-bedfor-profithospitalinthesouthwesternUnitedStates,wasexperiencingsevereproblemsinitsoperatingroom(OR).FortypercentoftheORnurseshadquitduringthepreviouseightmonths.Theirreplacementsweresignificantlylessexperi-enced,especiallyinthespecialtyareas.Fur-thermore,notallcouldbereplaced;whenthecrisiscametoahead,theORwasshortsevensurgicalnurses.Also,neededequipmentoftenwasnotavail-able.Onseveraloccasions,orthopedicsurgeonshadalreadybegunsurgerybeforetheyrealizedthenecessaryprosthesis(forexample,anartifi-cialhip,fingerjoint,orkneejoint)wasnotready,orwasthewrongsize,orhadnotevenbeenordered.Surgerythenhadtobedelayedwhileequipmentwasborrowedfromaneighboringhospital.OtherseriousproblemsalsoplaguedtheOR.Forexample,schedulingproblemsmadelifeextremelydifficultforeveryoneinvolved.Anesthesiologistsoftenwereunavail-ablewhentheywereneeded,andhabituallytardysurgeonsdelayedeveryonescheduledafterthem.Thenursingshortageexacerbatedthesedifficultiesbyrequiringimpossiblytightscheduling;evenwhenthedoctorswerereadytobegin,theschedulednursesmightstillbeoccupiedinoneoftheotherORs.Thesurgeonswereatoddsamongthem-selves.Over30ofthemwerewidelyregardedasprimadonnaswhoconsideredtheirowntimemorevaluablethananyoneelseÕsandwouldevencreateemergenciesinordertogetÒprimetimeÓORslotsÑforwhich,asoftenasnot,theywerelate.Worstofall,how-ever,thedoctorsandnurseswerevirtuallyatwar.Specifically,Don,thenewchiefofsur-gery,wasatwarwithMary,theveteranORdirector;indeed,hehadcampaignedonapromisetogetherfired.LincolnÕspresidentwasfacedwithadifficultchoice.Ontheonehand,heneededtosatisfythephysicians,whoduringthetenureofhispre-decessorhadbecomeaccustomedtogettingtheirwayinpersonnelmattersbythreateningtotaketheirpatientselsewhere.Themarketwas,asthephysiciansknew,increasinglycom-petitive,andthehospitalwasalsofacedwithescalatingcosts,changesingovernmentregula-tions,andstrictJointCommissiononAccredita-tionofHospitalsstandards.CouldthepresidentaffordtoalienatethesurgeonsbyopposingtheirnewlychosenrepresentativeÑwhohadalargepracticeofhisown?Ontheotherhand,couldheaffordtosacrificeMary?ShehadbeenORdirectorfor13years,andhewasgenerallysatisfiedwithher.Ashelaterexplained,Maryisatoughlady,andshecanbehardtogetalongwithattimes.ShealsodoesnÕtsmileallthatmuch.Butshedoesalotofthingsright.SheconsistentlystayswithinherbudgetÉ.Furthermore,whereasDonhadlongbeenanoutspokencriticofthehospitalandwasgen-erallydistrustedbyitsadministrators,Marywasloyal,astrictconstructionistwhoadheredfirmlytohospitalpoliciesandprocedures:Sheissupportiveofme,ofthehospital,andofourinterests.ShedoesnÕtletthedoctorsgetawaywithmuch.Shehasbeenanalmostfaultlessemployeeforyears,inthesensethatshecomestowork,getsthejobdone,nevercomplains,anddoesnÕtmakeanywaves.IreallydonÕtunderstandthereasonfortherecentpro-blems.Itrustherandwanttokeepher.Itwouldbeextremelydifficulttoreplaceher.Thelastpointwasakeyone;asisterhos-pitalhadspentalmostthreeyearsunsuccess-fullytryingtorecruitanORdirector.Aftertalkingwithbothnursesanddoctors,thepresidentdecidednottofireMary.Instead,hetoldbothMaryandDonthattheymustresolvetheirdifferences.Theyweretobegin*R.WayneBoss,UniversityofColorado;LesleeS.Boss,OrganizationResearchandDevelopmentAssociates;MarkW.Dundon,SistersofProvidenceHospital.322PART3HUMANPROCESSINTERVENTIONS
meetingrightawayandkeeponmeeting,howeverlongittook,untiltheygottheORstraightenedout.Theresultswerepredictable.Neitherpartywantedtomeetwiththeother.Marythoughtthewholeexercisewaspointless,andDonsawitasapowerstrugglethathecouldnotaffordtolose.Thepresident,whowantedanobserverpresent,choseTerry,thenewexecutivevicepresidentandchiefoperatingofficer.MarydidnÕtknowTerryverywellsosheaskedthatherboss,thevicepresidentofpatientservices,sitin.Don,whoÒdidnÕttrusteitherMaryorherbossasfarashecouldthrowthem,Ócounteredwitharequestforasecondofhisown,thevicepresidentformedicalservices.Whenthemeetingfinallyoccurred,itquicklydegeneratedintoafree-for-all,asDonandMaryexchangedaccusations,hotlydefendedthemselves,andinterpretedanyinter-ventionsbythethreeÒobserversÓasÒtakingsides.ÓDIAGNOSISAtthispoint,LincolnÕspresidentcalledme.Wenegotiatedapsychologicalcontract,wherethepresidentsharedtheabovehistoricalinformation,describedtheproblemashesawit,andidentifiedhisexpectationsofmeandfortheproject.I,inturn,articulatedmyexpectationsofthepresident.WethenagreedtotakenostepsuntilIhadinter-viewedbothDonandMary.Laterthatafternoon,Donexpressedhisangerandfrustrationwiththehospitaladministrationand,mostofall,withMary:IdonÕtwanttohaveanythingtodowiththislady.Sheisalousymanager.HerpeoplecanÕtstandtoworkwithher.WedonÕthavetheequipmentorthesuppliesthatweneed.TheturnoverintheORisoutrageous.Thebestnurseshavequit,andtheirreplacementsdonÕtknowenoughtocomeinoutoftherain.ÉAllwewantistoprovidequalitypatientcare,andsherefusestoletusdothat.ShedoesnÕtfollowthroughonthings.HeparticularlyresentedMaryÕslackofdeference.MaryÕsbehaviorissodisgracefulitisalmostlaughable.Sheshowsnorespectwhatsoeverforthephysicians.ÉShethinksshecantelluswhattodoandorderusaround;andIamnotgoingtoputupwithitanylonger.WhenIagreedtotakethisjobaschiefofsurgery,IpromisedmycolleaguesthatIwouldcleanupthemessthathasplaguedtheORforyears.Ihaveamandatefromthemtodowhat-everisnecessarytoaccomplishthat.Thedocsaresickandtiredofbeingabused,andIamgoingtodealwiththisladyheadon.Ifwegotridofher,95%ofourproblemswouldgoaway.Shehasjustgonetoofarthistime.Inhiscoolermoments,DonadmittedthatMarywasonlypartlytoblamefortheORÕsprob-lems,buthestillinsistedshemustbefired,ifonlytoprovetothedoctorsthatthehospitaladministra-tionwasconcernedaboutthoseproblems,andthatsomethingwasbeingdone.Observation:Iamalwaysabitsuspiciousabouttheobjectivityofsomeonewhohasreachedtheconclusionthatsomeonemustbefired.Thereisalmostalwayssomethingelsethatisgoingonthatrequiresmoreinvestigation.Marywasbothangryandbewildered.Shesawherselfasfairandconsistentindealingwithdoc-torsandnurses:Thingshadgonerelativelywelluntilsixmonthsago.Atthattime,someoftheortho-podsstartedschedulingsurgeriesandthencancelingthematthelastminute,which,inturn,fouleduptheschedulefortherestofthedoctors.WhenIcalledthemonit,Donwentonaram-page.Heistheleaderofthepack,andnowhehasbloodinhiseyes.Ihavetriedtotalkwithhimaboutit,buthewonÕtlisten.AndjustasDonÕsassessmentechoed,inanexaggeratedform,thedoctorsÕperceptionofMaryasanexceptionallystrong-willedwoman,MaryÕsassessmentofDonechoedhisreputationamongtheorthopedicnursesandhospitaladministrators,whofearedanddistrustedhisquicktemperandsharptongue:Notonlythat,butIfindhisfilthymouthveryoffensive.IamnotgoingtocooperatewithSELECTEDCASES323
himwhenhebehaveslikethat.Nobodyelsetalkstomethatwayandgetsawaywithit.Nobody,IwonÕtputupwithit.Aslongashebehavesthatway,itisawasteoftimetomeetwithhim.IamsurethatIamdoingthingsthatbotherhim,andIwanttheORtorunassmoothlyaspossible.Butthereisnowaywecandealwiththeseproblemsunlesswecansitdownandtalkaboutthemwithoutbeingabusive.Clearly,bothMaryandDonhadstrongneedstocontrolotherpeopleÕsbehavior,whileremainingfreeofcontrolthemselves.ItissignificantthateachusedthewordabusetodescribetheotherÕsbehavior.TheydidrespecteachotherÕstechnicalabilities,butmorally,MarysawDonasÒanegotis-ticaljerk,ÓandhesawherasaÒrigid,pettytyrant.ÓNeithertrustedtheother,thus,eachwasinclinedtomisconstrueevenunintentionallynegativecommentsÑanespeciallydisastrousstateofaffairsinthegossipyenvironmentatLincoln,wheresurgeons,nurses,andadministratorswerequicktorelay,andamplify,thesignalsofhostility.ItwasobviousfromtheseinitialinterviewsthatDonandMarywerelargelycontributingtotheORproblems;butitwasalsoobviousthatmanyothershadastakeintheoutcomeoftheirbattle.Ithereforewentontointerviewthesurgicalheadnurses,thevicepresidentsforpatientser-vicesandmedicalservices,theexecutivevicepresident,thepresident,and25physicians.Thevicepresidentsandthesurgicalheadnursesagreedwiththepresident:MarymightnotbethehospitalÕsmostpersonablemanager,butshewasagoodone.Herconservative,tenacious,no-nonsensestylehadearnedthetrustofadminis-tratorsandtherespectofORnurses,aswellassomephysicians.Asonenurseasserted:ÒGoodORmanagersarehardtofindandcertainlyLincolnisfarbetteroffwithMarythanwithouther.ÓThedoctors,ingeneral,supportedDon,thoughsomeofthemhadreservations.Atoneextreme,ananesthesiologistbeganwithaclassicdisclaimer:Now,IwantyoutoknowthatIdonÕthaveanyproblemswithMary,personally.Infact,Ireallylikeher.Wehavebeenfriendsforyears,andwegetalongjustgreat.Nevertheless,hewasconvincedtheORprob-lemswereÒ100%MaryÕsfault.Ihavenodoubtaboutthat.ÓFurthermore,althoughheclaimedtobe,asananesthesiologist,Òacompletelyneutralthirdpartyinthiswholebusiness,ÓheclearlysharedDonÕsassumptionthatMaryÕsjobasanORmanagerwastokeepthesurgeonshappy:Herpeoplehateher.Sheisalousymanager.ShejustcanÕtworkwiththeMDs.Surgeonsareararebreed,andthereisnochangingthem.Youhavegottogetsomeoneintherewhocanworkwiththemandgivethemwhattheywant.HisconclusionechoedDonÕs:ÒSheoughttobefired,iffornootherreasonthantoprovethatsomethingisbeingdonetoaddresstheproblemsintheOR.ÓObservation:Iamalwaysleeryofsomeonewhosays,ÒItisallherfault.ÓWhensome-oneisblamedfor100%oftheproblem,itusuallyevidenceseitherdenialoracoverup.Theremaybeacompletelyinnocentpartyinanemotionallychargedconflict,butIhavenevermetone.Emotionallychargedconflictsarealwayspowerstruggles,andittakestwopartiestoplaythatgame.Alessenthusiasticpartisan,asurgeonwhowasaten-yearveteranoftheLincolnOR,wasverycon-sciousofthewayexpectationssuchasthoseexpressedbyDonandtheanesthesiologistwereapttobeviewedbyothersinthemedicalcommunity:Quitefrankly,IamembarrassedtoadmitthatIamasurgeoninthistown;bydoingso,Iamautomaticallybrandedasanegotisticaldimwit.Withonlyafewexceptions,thoseguysareagroupofconceited,narcissistictechnicianswhoaresocaughtupwiththemselvesthattheyhavenoclueaboutwhatisgoingonaroundthem.Someofthemarebullies,andtheypushtherestofusaroundbecausewedonÕthavethepatientcensustheydo.HisassessmentofblamewascorrespondinglymoremoderatethantheanesthesiologistÕs:ÒAlot324PART3HUMANPROCESSINTERVENTIONS
ofpeoplewouldlikeyoutothinkthatthisproblemisonesided,andthatMaryistotallyresponsibleforthismess.ButthatisnÕttrue.ÓAndwhilehesupportedDon,whomhedescribedasreasonableandwillingtolistentologic,hisprincipalwishwastoavoidpersonalinvolvement:ÒIamgladheisfightingthisbattle.IwonÕt.ThethoughtofgettingcaughtbetweenhimandMaryscaresmetodeath.ÓThislastwishwasvividlyelaboratedbyanothersurgeon,whoalsohighlightedthegeneralperceptionofMaryasastrongpersonality:IdonÕtmesswithMaryatall.IÕmnotstupid.ItÕstruethatIdonÕtlikesomeofthethingsthatshedoes.Sometimessheisjustplainornery.ButIalsoamnotwillingtotakeheron.Infact,atthispoint,Iwilldowhatevershewants,whenevershewantsit.Iftheotherdocsaresmart,theywonÕtmesswithhereither.Theycantalkbigintheirmeetings,butiftheyhaveanysense,theywonÕtmesswiththatlady.ShecontrolstoomanyoftheresourcesIneedtodomyjob.Sofarshehasbeenveryhelpful,andshehasgoneoutofherwaytodomesomefavors.IdonÕtwanttomessthatup.IthinkitisgreatthatDoniswillingtotakeheron,andIwishhimsuccess.Thatway,ifshewins,itwillbehimthatgetsbeatup,notme.ThehighturnoveramongORnurseswasaparticularlysorepointamongthesurgeonsingen-eral,whosefrustrationwasexplainedbyDon:IdonÕtthinktheadministrationhasaclueastohowurgentthismatterreallyis.Ittakesatleastfiveyearsforasurgicalnursetogainthenecessaryskillstobeuseful.Inthelasttwomonths,wehavelostsomeofthebestnursesIhaveeverworkedwithinmylife.Asaresult,Ihadtostartthetrainingprocessalloveragain.IthasseemedlikeIÕvebeenworkingwithagroupofstudentnurses!Thisturnoverhascutmyproductivitybymorethan50%.MostofthedoctorsblamedthehighturnoveronthenursingmanagersÕinabilitytoretainquali-fiedpersonnel,whereasthemanagersblameditonthedoctorsÕverbalabuse.Andinfact,asignifi-cantnumberofdoctorswerewidelyregardedbysomeoftheirpeersaswellasbythenursesasimpatient,intolerantperfectionistswhodemandedfarmoreofothersthantheydidofthemselves.Fromtheextendedinterviews,itwasobviousthatwhileMaryhadgreatercredibilitywiththehospitaladministrationandDonhadmorebackingfromthedoctors,eachhadacertainamountofpowerovertheotherÕsconstituency:Marycon-trolledthesurgeonsÕworkingconditions,whileDoncontrolledasignificantportionofthehospitalÕspatientflow.TheORproblemscouldnotberesolvedwithoutgenuinecooperationfrombothofthemÑespeciallyfromDon,whowasoutsidetheformalhierarchyofthehospitalandcouldnotbecoercedbythepresident.Imetagainprivatelywitheachofthemtodeterminewhethertheywerehonestlycommittedtoimprovingtheirworkingrelationship.Bothwereskepticalaboutthepossibilityofrealchangebutsaidtheywerewillingtodoeverythingtheycouldtohelp,aslongastheirownbasicvalueswerenotviolated.Eachdefinedthekindofhelpheorshewaswillingtoacceptfrommeandthecircum-stancesunderwhichthathelpwastobegiven.INTERVENTIONOnlyatthispointdidactualthird-partyfacilitationinterventionbegin.Iusedadesignthatincludedperceptionsharing,problemidentification,con-tracting,andfollow-upmeetings.Attheirfirstfor-malmeetingtogetherwithmeandthethreevicepresidentswhoactedasobservers,MaryandDonbeganbywritinganswerstothreequestions:1.Whatdoesheorshedowell?2.WhatdoIthinkIdothatbugshimorher?3.Whatdoesheorshedothatbugsme?Theveryprocessofwritingthingsdownwashelpful.ItgavethemtimetogetusedtothisexplicitlyconfrontationalsituationbeforeeitherofthemhadachancetoÒpopoffÓattheother,anditforcedanelementofrationalityintoanemotion-allychargedsituation.Also,thequestionsrequiredspecificanswersconcerningbehaviors,notsubjec-tivegeneralizationsaboutpersonalities.Listingspecificbehaviorsmadeeachofthemrealizethatatleastsomeofthethingstheydislikedabouttheothercouldbechanged.Theythenexplainedtheseresponsesorally,intheordershowninFigure1.BecauseoftheirSELECTEDCASES325
FIGURE1ParticipantResponsestoThreeQuestionsintheThird-PartyFacilitationModel1.WhatdoesMaryadmireaboutDonandthinkhedoeswell?¥Heisveryconcernedaboutpatientcare.¥Iadmirehimforhisskillsasasurgeon.Iwouldhavenoproblemsendingamemberofmyfamilytohim.¥Heisinterestedandwantstoworkoutissuesthatwehavewitheachother.¥Hecanbeverygentleandconsiderateattimes.¥HeiswellrespectedforhisskillsbyhispeersandbytheORnursingstaff.2.WhatdoesDonadmireaboutMaryandthinkthatshedoeswell?¥Sheishonestinherwork.¥Shehasmetmyneedsinorthopedicsingettingustheinstrumentsandequipmentweneed.¥Shehasalotofexternalpressuresonherandshehashandledthemwell.¥Shedealswellwiththevariousgroupsthatarepullingather:patients,staff,administration,physicians.¥ShemanagestheoverallpictureverywellintheOR.3.WhatdoesDonthinkhedoesthatbugsMary?¥Iamimpatient.(Maryagrees)¥Iamdemandingofpersonnelinsurgery,buteveryonecanÕtalwaysgetwhattheywant,whentheywantit.(Marydisagrees)¥SheisuncertainastohowmuchIamwillingtosupportherthiscomingyear.(Maryagrees)¥Iamnotthebestlistener.(Maryagrees)4.WhatdoesMarythinkshedoesthatbugsDon?¥IdonÕtlistentohim.(Donagrees)¥Iappeardefensiveattimes.(Donagrees)¥Irespondtosomedirectivesinaverydetailedmanner.(Donagrees)5.WhatdoesMarydothatbugsDon?¥Sheisdifficulttocommunicatewith.Icantalktoher,butIamnotsurethatsheislistening.¥ShedoesnÕtassumetheresponsibilityforsomespecificproblems,suchasnotbeingabletodoanoperationwithoutafullsetofprosthesisavailable.¥ShedoesnÕteffectivelymanagethepersonnelthatshesupervisesinOR.Specifically,thereisagreatdealofdisruptiongoingon.Andtherearealsomoraleproblems,particularlyastheyrelatetotheirtrustofherandhertrustofthemintheOR.6.WhatdoesDondothatbugsMary?¥Hegeneralizesandisnotveryspecificwithexamples,evenwhenquestioned.¥Thestafflabelshimasawhiner,intermsofÒnothingiseverright,Óhiscomplaining,etc.Thisalsorelatestolayingoutproblemsandthenwalkingaway.¥HesometimessaysonethingbutmeansanotherÑandgivesmixedmessages.Anexplanationofthisismyaskinghimhowthingsaregoing,hesaysfine,butthenIfindoutthathehasproblemslaterintheday.¥Idonotfeelafullmeasureofsupportfromhim,andthatbugsme.¥HedoesnÕtalwayslistentomyconcerns.©CengageLearning2015326PART3HUMANPROCESSINTERVENTIONS
mutualhostility,Ithoughtitsafertorequirethatatfirsttheyaddresstheirremarksonlytothethirdparty,nottoeachother.Each,however,wasrequiredtoheartheotherÕspresentationsoeachwouldunderstandtheotherÕsperceptions.Andbecausebothwereguaranteedanuninterruptedspeech,eachwasmorelikelytolistentotheother.Takingupthepositiveperceptionsfirsthelped.AsDonlaterexplained:Iwasstunnedtohearhersaythosepositivethings,particularlythepartaboutmetakingcareofherfamily.Foralongtime,Ihadseenherasmyenemy,andIexpectedonlytheworst.Iwasamazedthatshehadsomuchrespectforme.Asaresult,manyofmynega-tivefeelingsforherbegantoleave.Itisreallytoughtostayangryatsomeonewhosayssomanynicethingsaboutyou.IalsofoundthatIwasmuchmorewillingtolistentowhatIdothatbugsher.Somehow,criticismisalwayseasiertotakewhenitisaccompaniedbysomethingpositive.Italsohelpedthatbeforemakinganyaccusa-tionsagainsteachother,theywererequiredtoexaminetheirownbehavior.AsMaryacknowl-edged,neitherhadevertakenthetimetofigureoutspecificallyhowheorshemightbecausingproblemsfortheother:IthadneverreallyoccurredtomethatImaybedoingsomethingthatcausedDontoreactthatway.Vaguely,IsuspectedthatImaybedoingsomethingthathedidnÕtlike,butIwashardpressedtoidentifywhatitwas.Ireallyhadtostandbackandsaytomyself,ÒWhatisitthatIamdoingthatismakingthiswork-ingrelationshipgosour?ÓIhadspentsomuchtimeconcentratingonwhathewasdoingthatbuggedmethatIhadnÕtlookedatmyself.Theoraldiscussionofthisquestionmadeitobviousthatneitherwasintentionallycausingproblemsfortheother,makingbothpartieslesshypersensitivetoimaginaryinsults.Also,becausebothweremuchharderonthemselvesthantheywereoneachother,themildercriticismstheydidsubsequentlydirectateachotherwerenotnearlyasoffensiveastheywouldotherwisehavebeen.Thenextstepwastoidentifyspecificprob-lemsforMaryandDontoaddress.Theywrotetheirresponsestoquestionthreeonasheetofnewsprint,assigningvectorstorepresenttherela-tiveseriousnessoftheproblem.Someofthemostseriousproblemscouldberesolvedimmediately;othersweregoingtotakelonger,butatleastDonandMarynowknewwhattheirprioritieshadtobe.Finally,itbecamepossibleforthemtoagreeonspecificbehavioralchangesthatmighthelp.DonandMaryeachdefinedwhattheywantedfromtheotherandnegotiatedwhattheythem-selveswerewillingtoundertake;Imoderatedthemeetingandwrotedownthedecisions.(Attheendofthemeeting,Don,Mary,andthethreeobserverseachreceivedacopyofthesecommitments.)BecauseMaryandDonwereinter-dependent,eithercouldeasilyhavesabotagedtheotherÕsefforts.Therefore,indefiningeachactionitem,Iremindedthemtospecifyresponsibilitiesforbothparties:¥WhatwillDon(Mary)dotoresolvethisproblem?¥WhatwillMary(Don)dotohelptheothersucceed?ThistechniquemadebothpartiesjointlyresponsibleforresolvingeachproblemandthuschangedthewholedynamicoftherelationshipÑfrommutualisolationtocollaboration,fromdenialofresponsibilitytoacceptanceofresponsibility,andfromafocusonproblemstoafocusonsolutions.Duringthenextyear,IhadfourmoremeetingswithDon,Mary,andthethreevicepresidents.Beforeeachmeeting,Iinterviewedeachpartici-pantprivately.Atthebeginningofeachmeeting,theparticipantsgavegeneralreportsonwhatwasgoingon,betweenMaryandDonandintheORingeneral.Inparticular,IaskedthetwotolistpositiveeventsandspecificbehaviorsoneachotherÕspartthattheyappreciated.Theythenreviewedthecommitmentstheyhadmadeduringthepreviousmeeting.Inalmosteverycase,bothMaryandDonhadkeptthesecommitments,thusbuildingabasisoftrustforfurthercommitmentsduringthelatterpartofthemeeting.Wheretheyhadnotkeptthecommitments,plansweremadetoensurefollow-throughbeforethenextmeeting.SELECTEDCASES327
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 3
Organization Design and Development (MGT 404)
Due Date: 02/12/2023 @ 23:59
For Instructor’s Use only
General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder.
Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
Late submission will NOT be accepted.
Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Learning Outcomes:
Describe the basic steps of the organizational development process.
Evaluate the strategic role of change in the organization and its impact on organizational performance.
Analyze the human, structural and strategic dimensions of organizational development.
Assignment Question(s):
Read the case Lincoln Hospital: Third Party Intervention from book Organization Development and Change by Cummings. take notes on the diagnosis and intervention stages for this case and answer the following questions:
If you had been called by Lincoln’s president to help resolve the problems described in the case, how would you have carried out the contracting and diagnosis stages? (2 Marks)
What would you have done differently than what the OD consultant did? (2 Marks)
Do you think that the third-party intervention is an appropriate intervention in this case? Why? (2 Marks)
What are some other OD interventions that can be appropriate in this case? Why? (2 Marks)
How effective was the third-party intervention? And Evaluate its impact. (2 Marks)
Note:
Use the concepts developed in this course in your answers.
You must include at least 5 references.
Format your references using APA style.

Answers
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