Methodology section of research

social work writing question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

i need help with writtinga Methodology section of a research paper
Section 3: Methodology in the guide will give more information
Requirements: 5-7 pages
Introduction
Alen Abraham

Introduction
Historical Background
The evolution of cultures perspectives on aging populations provides a rich narrative context for the supply of healthy food and social involvement programs for seniors. Health, financial stability, and inclusion in society are just a few issues that have affected seniors throughout history. In the past, elderly care was primarily provided by families and communities. However, the family structures and social conditions available to seniors have changed considerably due to industrialization and urbanization. Governments and non-profits only started implementing formal support and social programs for seniors in the mid-twentieth century (Luo, 2020). As a result of the Great Depression and later economic crises, programs like Social Security and community centers were established to aid seniors. Nutritional support and social interaction have emerged as critical factors for researching how to age effectively. Understanding this historical background is now more essential than ever as the world’s population ages and its members face new obstacles in obtaining enough nutrition and fulfilling social lives.
Problem Statement
The lack of access to social activities and nutritious food for seniors is central to this study’s investigation into this issue. With the aging of our population comes the increasingly obvious fact that many seniors struggle greatly to meet basic needs like eating well and having friends to spend time with. These hinderances lead to unhealthy disparities in health, social solitude and financial depression. Approximately 7% of homes with an older adult aged 65 years or older experienced food insecurity, whereas 7.2% of households with a solitary older senior experienced food insecurity (Mavegam,2005). On the other hand, isolation may lead to loneliness, depression, and poor mental and emotional health as a result of lack of interaction and support. According to prevalence data, it has been observed that around one out of every three older persons in the United States reports experiencing feelings of loneliness. While loneliness is not only experienced by the elderly population, those who are classified as the oldest old (aged 80 years and beyond) tend to exhibit comparatively elevated levels of loneliness. According to some estimations, around 40% to 50% of this demographic often express feelings of loneliness (Gerst-Emerson,2015).In conclusion, two leading causes of concern are a lack of social opportunities and poor nutrition. These problems are intertwined and pose severe obstacles to the well-being of seniors and the community. Promoting healthy aging, decreasing healthcare inequities, and improving the quality of life for seniors all depend on finding a solution to this issue.
Description of Problem
In this case, we are dealing with a complex problem that has severe consequences for the well-being of seniors. First, a significant section of the senior population needs reliable access to adequate and nourishing food due to the insufficient supply. Negative physical as well as mental health effects, such as being more prone to chronic diseases and malnutrition, get worse with age. The lack of appropriate possibilities for seniors to interact socially worsens the issue. Due to inadequate of opportunities for engagement and education, many seniors experience feelings of isolation, making people’s mental and emotional health struggle, becoming more susceptible to negative emotions like loneliness and sadness (Sabo, 2021). This is a widespread problem since it affects many seniors, particularly those economically vulnerable, isolated from society, and having trouble getting around. It has far-reaching effects, including inequality in health outcomes, a lower standard of life for seniors, higher healthcare expenditures, and financial hardships for individuals and society. Recognizing and resolving these obstacles is critical to creating more robust, more welcoming communities that promote healthy aging and the health of older persons.
Evidence the Problem Exists
The problem of inadequate supply of nutritional meals and social interaction for older individuals is, according to a rising database of research that has been peer-reviewed, a pressing issue. One research published in the “American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry ” highlights the widespread malnutrition among seniors, particularly those with restricted access to healthful food and informational resources (Van Orden, 2021). The research highlights the association between malnutrition and adverse health outcomes, adding weight to the call for change. In addition, the medical publication ” SAGE Open Medicine ” published an article examined by experts and discussed the negative consequences of isolation on seniors (Scott, 2020). It sheds light on how a greater likelihood of malnutrition is associated with social isolation, frequently worsened by a lack of access to educational and entertainment activities. The issue of older individuals’ low diets was shown to be aggravated by their social isolation and their lack of awareness about community resources. These two research papers add to the growing body of evidence showing that this issue is factual and harms the health and well-being of seniors, stressing the need for more study in this area so that adequate support and intervention systems are created.
Problem in the Context of the Agency Setting
As a community-based organization striving to improve the quality of life for seniors, our focus on aging populations makes the identified problem of inadequate supply of nutritional meals and insufficient social involvement significant to our agency environment. Here at our organization, we see firsthand the difficulties senior citizens have in obtaining balanced diets and engaging in interesting conversation. Our senior clients need help with financial constraints, inaccessibility due to location, and knowledge of available services. Our organization has been working for a long time to combat these issues by coordinating social engagement programs and providing nutritional support. But at the same time, we should have higher understanding of the hardships that our clients face and the value of what we do. Through the exploration of this matter, we expect to gather information on the environment within our agency in order to be able to channel our efforts and resources more effectively. Our organization will benefit from this research in the future. However, the most important benefit will be improving the living standards for the seniors that we support, by providing them with healthier meals and socialization opportunities.
Purpose of the Study
This research aims to answer essential questions about ensuring that older individuals have access to healthy food and opportunities for significant social interaction. Our main objective is to learn everything we can about seniors difficulties in getting healthy food and participating in community activities. By eradicating these challenges, we hope to create methods supported by empirical data that can improve the quality of life for the seniors in our community. The goals of this research go beyond awareness of the issue and instead focus on developing actionable initiatives to better the lives of seniors at risk for malnutrition and loneliness. Our objective is to call attention to the fact that these issues have become a common trend in corporations and come up with specific solutions that we practice within our organization. This study intends to establish a situation where older adults will have adequate resources for the maintenance of their health while still participating in social activities.
Research Question
This study is motivated by the question, “What are the main obstacles that discourage older adults from joining the ‘Lunch with Us’ program, and how can these obstacles be addressed effectively?” Our study centers on this topic, which guides our investigation into the complex barriers that prevent seniors from participating in social activities and having access to healthy food. To overcome these challenges, we need first to be able to recognize and understand them. In addition, this study’s fundamental aim is to better the lives of seniors by ensuring that all seniors, regardless of their income or status in society, have access to healthy food and worthwhile activities. This additionally shows our dedication to improving these underprivileged individuals lives by fostering more significant participation in society, individual agency, and material well-being. We plan to make significant strides toward bettering the lives of older folks in our neighborhood by thoroughly examining these obstacles and their potential solutions.
Significance of Study
The importance of this study cannot be overstated, as there is an urgent need to find solutions to the problems of insufficient provision of nutritional meals and social engagement for older persons. First, caring for seniors is essential, both an ethical and a practical one. This population’s health significantly affects medical care, social services, and society. This study can improve health outcomes among older persons by recognizing and correcting shortages in access to nutritional meals and social engagement programs, thus lowering healthcare expenditures and improving the quality of life for a marginalized group. The data can help guide efforts to tailor programs, allocate more resources, and better coordinate care for seniors (Enssle, 2020). This study can improve neighborhood policies by increasing awareness of seniors’ social, economic, and practical challenges. The more considerable importance of this research dwells in its ability to improve the health and happiness of seniors, spread awareness about positive aging procedures, and fortify communities by promoting social cohesion and mutual aid.
Benefits to the Social Work Field
The results of this study have significant consequences for social workers, lawmakers, and organizations concerned with the welfare of seniors. First, professionals in the field of social work can learn great information about the unique difficulties faced by seniors in the areas of food consumption and social interaction, making them provide their clients with better advice and services, as well as guarantee that their interventions will go to the root of their problems. Policymakers can use evidence-based data from this study to better care to the needs of the aging population. It can direct funding, influence policy, and motivate activities that improve older people’s access to and experience with nutrition and social support services. Social service and community organizations can potentially improve outreach efforts, service coordination, and the overall quality of life for seniors. In the long run, the outcomes will help shape social work policies and procedures designed to improve health and participation in community life of senior citizens.

Refernce
Gerst-Emerson, K., & Jayawardhana, J. (2015). RESEARCH AND PRACTICE. Loneliness as a Public Health Issue: The Impact of Loneliness on Health Care Utilization Among Older Adults. American Journal of Public Health, 105(5), 1013–1019.
Luo, M., Ding, D., Bauman, Negin, J., & Phongsavan, P. (2020). Social engagement trends, health behaviors and health of older adults: The international viewpoint by WHO-SAGE survey data. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1-10.
Mavegam Tango Assoumou, B. O., Coughenour, C., Godbole, A., & McDonough, I. (2023). Senior food insecurity in the USA: a systematic literature review. Public Health Nutrition, 26(1), 229–245. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980022002415
Sabo, K., & Chin, E. (2021). Self-care services and practices for the older adult caregiver: An integrative review. Geriatric Nursing, 42(2), 570–581.
Scott, T. Masser, B. M., & Pachana, N. A. (2020). Positive aging advantages of home and community gardening activities: Older adults report enhanced self-esteem, productive endeavors, social engagement, and exercise. SAGE Open Medicine, 8, 2050312120901732.
Van Orden, Bower, E., Lutz, J., Silva, Gallegos, A., Podgorski, C. A., … & Conwell, Y. (2021). Strategies to boosts social connections among older adults during “social distancing” standards. An American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 29(8), 816–827.

Research Proposal Guide Dr. Angel Resto 2020
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 1 Contents Section 1- Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………3 Step 1: Defining the social problem ……………………………………………………………………………………………………3 Worksheet1: Defining the Social Problem ……………………………………………………………………………………3 Worksheet 2: Gathering evidence of the problem ……………………………………………………………………….4 Step 3: Identifying the cause of the problem ………………………………………………………………………………………5 Worksheet3: Identifying the causes of the problem …………………………………………………………………….5 Step 4 -Formulating Problem Statements ………………………………………………………………………………………….6 Worksheet 4 – Formulating Problem Statements ………………………………………………………………………….6 Step 5: The Significance of the Study ………………………………………………………………………………………………….7 Worksheet 5: Significance/rationale of the study ………………………………………………………………………..7 Step 6: Measurement/Assessment of Variables/Constructs ……………………………………………………………….8 Worksheet: Measurements/Assessments (Quantitative Research) …………………………………………….9 Worksheet: Measurements/Assessments (Qualitative Research) ……………………………………………. 10 Step 7: How to Write a Research Question ……………………………………………………………………………………… 11 Worksheet 7 – Research Question(s) ………………………………………………………………………………………… 12 Step 8- Formulating a Purpose Statement ……………………………………………………………………………………… 13 Worksheet 8 – Formulating Purpose statement ………………………………………………………………………… 14 Step 9: How to formulate the Hypothesis ………………………………………………………………………………………… 15 Worksheet 9 – Writing the Hypothesis………………………………………………………………………………………. 17 Step 9: Check up ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18 Worksheet 9- Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19 Step 10: Put it all together ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20 Section 2: Annotated Bibliography …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 Section 2: Literature Review ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26 Section 3: Methodology …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28 Description of Research Method and Research Design ………………………………………………………………………. 28 Population and sample …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29 Data collection procedures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30 Method of Statistical Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 2 NORTHEASTERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY SOCIAL WORK PROGRAM Research Proposal Guide The Research Proposal is a complete description of the intended research, developed under the supervision of the assigned supervisor. Through the full proposal, the student needs to demonstrate convincingly that the study will make a contribution to a social work issue or problem. The full research proposal must be between 5 and 10 pages and should present the following: Section 1: Introduction • Statement of the Problem • Purpose/Significance/Rationale • Research Questions • Research Hypothesis (If applicable) Section 2: Literature Review • Methodology • Study Population and Sampling • Description of research design • Instrumentation Section 3: Data collection procedures • Data analysis methods – if applicable statistical planning must be fully addressed or the candidate should provide evidence that statistics are not required. Study period – Timetable for completion of the project References Appendixes – (copy of questionnaire, consent forms, etc.)
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 3 Section 1- Introduction The following pages present several worksheets that you must complete to create your introduction session. Step 1: Defining the social problem As a researcher, you will first need to select a problem topic and then specifically define a social problem. A social problem is a condition that at least some people in a community view as being undesirable. Worksheet1: Defining the Social Problem 1. In one or two sentences, state the nature of the social problem that you plan to study. 2. What is the specific community location of the social problem? 3. List at least three undesirable social conditions that result from this problem: 1. 2. 3. 4. Next, discuss why a research is necessary.
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 4 Step 2: Gathering evidence of the problem –Visit the library The goal of this step is to develop problem solving skills through using the library/Internet. Therefore, this step requires you to use the Internet to locate at least one reference to support the existence of your problem. Suppose you are doing a social problem with your agency or your community as the geopolitical location. Try to locate statewide or national data on the problem that best matches your agency or community. Then, you can contend that the data is applicable to your agency or community as well. Worksheet 2: Gathering evidence of the problem Your problem (phrase): Present evidence that a problem exists. Be as specific as possible and cite at least one source of data:
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 5 Step 3: Identifying the cause of the problem Medical researchers try to identify the causes of various diseases. They can develop a vaccine to immunize people from contracting that disease. For example, Dr. Jonas Salk virtually eliminated polio when he identified the virus that caused it, and then developed a vaccine. Likewise, if researchers can identify the causes or factors that contribute to a social problem, then they can try to develop public policies to eliminate or lessen those causes or factors. Unlike the specific virus that causes polio, most social problems have numerous causes and contributing factors. Some of the Internet/library resources that you used to complete the previous step probably also contain information about causes and contributing factors. Review those articles and brainstorm the causes and factors that contribute to your social problem. Record that information on Worksheet 3. Worksheet3: Identifying the causes of the problem Briefly list several underlying factors that contribute to the problem that you have identified (support these factors with evidence):
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 6 Step 4 -Formulating Problem Statements A persuasive problem statement consists of three parts: 1) the ideal, 2) the reality, and 3) the consequences for the reader of the proposal. Well constructed problem statements will convince your audience that the problem is real and worth having you investigate. Your strategy is one of contrast: by situating the ideal scenario next to the situation as it exists, you cannot only persuade the reader that a problem exists, but then go on to emphasize the consequences of ignoring or addressing the problem. Remember, your problem statement is the backbone of the proposal. By giving careful consideration to how you construct it now (for the proposal), you can use it when doing your research and writing for the proposal. Worksheet 4 – Formulating Problem Statements STATEMENT 1 (DESCRIPTION OF THE IDEAL SCENARIO) Describe the goals, desired state, or the values that your audience considers important and that are relevant to the problem. (BUT) Connect statements 1 and 2 using a term such as “but,” “however,” “Unfortunately,” or “in spite of”; STATEMENT 2 (THE REALITY OF THE SITUATION) Describe a condition that prevents the goal, state, or value discussed in statement 1 from being achieved or realized at the present time. STATEMENT 3 (THE CONSEQUENCES FOR THE AUDIENCE) Using specific details, show how the situation in statement 2 contains little promise of improvement unless something is done. Then emphasize the benefits of research by projecting the consequences of possible solutions as well. Source: http://www.personal.psu.edu/cvm115/proposal/propassign.htm
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 7 Step 5: The Significance of the Study The Significance of the study describes the contributions of the study as new knowledge, make findings more conclusive. It cites the usefulness of the study to the specific groups. Cite all the persons and groups that benefited on your study/research. Include a short explanation regarding how those persons and groups benefited from the study. (How the research study will help them?) Worksheet 5: Significance/rationale of the study Why you are doing the study? What do you hope to achieve by completing the study? What benefits will your research bring to the social work field? How it will be helpful? To whom? And Why?
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 8 Step 6: Measurement/Assessment of Variables/Constructs Assignment goals: • If quantitative methods are to be used in your research, your goal is to identify and define variables/constructs, how they will be measured (that is, locating measures/instruments) and assess their reliability and validity • If qualitative methods are to be used in your research, your goal is to review the assessment of constructs identified in for your research, along with issues of credibility, dependability, and integrity. Measurements/Assessments Assignment For this assignment you will scan your annotated bibliography for information about how others have identified and operationally defined the variables/constructs that are similar to the ones you have identified for your research project. • For qualitative research you will have to identify the variables and how the literature addresses how these variables are measured. You need to also describe what data collection tool will be use to collect this data. For example: if you are interested in measuring “stress level”, you need to search for literature about how stress can be measured, and what instrument can be used to measure stress. Make sure you address how reliable and valid these instruments are to measure these variables. • For qualitative research, you will need to focus on the way in which constructs/themes, etc., are to be assessed in a manner that establishes credibility, dependability, and integrity. For example: If you are interested in describe how people feel after the death of a family member, you need to search how the literature assess how people feel after the death of a family member. Then you will replicate what the literature has done. Use APA style in preparing your paper and citing references (i.e., the paper should follow APA for all paper and text formatting). The paper should be a minimum of 2 pages in length, excluding the title page and references. Revisions may be necessary based on faculty mentor feedback.
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 9 Worksheet: Measurements/Assessments (Quantitative Research) For this assignment you will scan your annotated bibliography for information about how others have identified and operationally defined the variables/constructs that are similar to the ones you have identified for your research project. Dependent variable: Definition: How does the literature define this variable? Assessment: Explain how does the literature measure this variable? What data collection tool does the literature suggest to use to measure this variable? Reference: List the source in APA style
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 10 Worksheet: Measurements/Assessments (Qualitative Research) If qualitative methods are to be used in your research, your goal is to review the assessment of constructs identified in for your research, along with issues of credibility, dependability, and integrity. Describe the construct: Discuss how the literature measures this construct in terms of credibility and dependability? (How you as a researcher will ensure the exploration of this construct will maintain credibility, and dependability). Reference: List the source in APA style Credibility The credibility criteria involves establishing that the results of qualitative research are credible or believable from the perspective of the participant in the research. Since from this perspective, the purpose of qualitative research is to describe or understand the phenomena of interest from the participant’s eyes, the participants are the only ones who can legitimately judge the credibility of the results. (source; http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualval.php) Dependability The traditional quantitative view of reliability is based on the assumption of replicability or repeatability. Essentially it is concerned with whether we would obtain the same results if we could observe the same thing twice. But we can’t actually measure the same thing twice — by definition if we are measuring twice, we are measuring two different things. In order to estimate reliability, quantitative researchers construct various hypothetical notions (e.g., true score theory) to try to get around this fact. The idea of dependability, on the other hand, emphasizes the need for the researcher to account for the ever-changing context within which research occurs. The research is responsible for describing the changes that occur in the setting and how these changes affected the way the research approached the study. (source; http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualval.php)
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 11 Step 7: How to Write a Research Question Source: http://writingcenter.gmu.edu/resources-template.php?id=59 What is a research question? A research question is a clear, focused, concise, complex and arguable question around which you center your research. You should ask a question about an issue that you are genuinely curious about. Why is a research question essential to the research process? Research questions help writers focus their research by providing a path through the research and writing process. The specificity of a well-developed research question helps writers avoid the “all-about” paper and work toward supporting a specific, arguable thesis. Steps to developing a research question: Choose an interesting general topic. Even directed academic research should focus on a topic in which the writer is at least somewhat personally invested. Writers should choose a broad topic about which they genuinely would like to know more. An example of a general topic might be “Slavery in the American South” or “Films of the 1930s.” Do some preliminary research on your general topic. Do a few quick searches in current periodicals and journals on your topic to see what’s already been done and to help you narrow your focus. What questions does this early research raise? Consider your audience. For most college papers, your audience will be academic, but always keep your audience in mind when narrowing your topic and developing your question. Would that particular audience be interested in this question? Start asking questions. Taking into consideration all of the above, start asking yourself open-ended “how” and “why” questions about your general topic. For example, “How did the slave trade evolve in the 1850s in the American South?” or “Why were slave narratives effective tools in working toward the abolishment of slavery?” Evaluate your question. Is your research question clear? With so much research available on any given topic, research questions must be as clear as possible in order to be effective in helping the writer direct his or her research. A Research Question identifies the phenomenon to be studied. For example, “What resources are helpful to new and minority drug abuse researchers?”
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 12 Worksheet 7 – Research Question(s) Write your research question(s)
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 13 Step 8- Formulating a Purpose Statement A purpose statement announces the purpose, scope, and direction of the paper. It tells the reader what to expect in a paper and what the specific focus will be. Common beginnings include: “This paper examines . . .,” “The aim of this paper is to . . .,” and “The purpose of this essay is to . . .” A purpose statement makes a promise to the reader about the development of the argument but does not preview the particular conclusions that the writer has drawn. A purpose statement usually appears toward the end of the introduction. The purpose statement may be expressed in several sentences or even an entire paragraph. A purpose statement is specific enough to satisfy the requirements of the assignment. Purpose statements are common in research papers in some academic disciplines, while in other disciplines they are considered too blunt or direct. For example: This paper will examine the ecological destruction of the Sahel preceding the drought and the causes of this disintegration of the land. The focus will be on the economic, political, and social relationships which brought about the environmental problems in the Sahel. Sample Purpose and Problem statements The following example combines a purpose statement and a problem statement (bold). The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of Chile’s agrarian reform on the lives of rural peasants. The nature of the topic dictates the use of both a chronological and a comparative analysis of peasant lives at various points during the reform period. . . The Chilean reform example provides evidence that land distribution is an essential component of both the improvement of peasant conditions and the development of a democratic society. More extensive and enduring reforms would likely have allowed Chile the opportunity to further expand these horizons. Source: Adapted from http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/Thesis_or_Purpose.html
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 14 Worksheet 8 – Formulating Purpose statement Example 1: I’m studying: (Add Topic here) ,to find out (Add research question here) , in order to (Add significance/rationale here ) Example 2: The Purpose/aim of this study is to find out (add research question) in order to (add significance/rationale of the study)
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 15 Step 9: How to formulate the Hypothesis (Complete this step if you are conducting a Quantitative Research) Hypothesis is a tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation. Something taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation; an assumption. How To Correctly Write A Hypothesis One of the most important skills a scientist has is his/her ability to write a good hypothesis. For today’s homework you will be practicing how to write a hypothesis correctly. Here a few of the basic steps. There are three basic types of hypotheses: the directional hypothesis (one-tail), the non-directional hypothesis (two-tail) and null hypothesis (statistical hypothesis). The directional hypothesis states the direction of the difference or relationship. The Non-directional hypothesis does not specify direction and the Null hypothesis states that there is no relationship among variables. So how should you write a hypothesis? First, identify what the problem is. If you fail to identify the problem, you most certainly will have difficulty writing the hypothesis. Second, make an educated guess as to what direction of the relationship or difference is. Third, identify the major variables. Now you are ready to write a hypothesis. Start by stating the directional hypothesis in a simple declarative statement. Do not use the terms “I think” to start the hypothesis. Now that you have given written the directional hypothesis, write the non-directional hypothesis. Practice: 1. Mark believes that groceries at Costco will be less expensive than groceries at Safeway. Write a directional, non- directional, and null hypothesis related to Mark’s observation. Directional Hypothesis___________________________________________________ Non-Directional Hypothesis_________________________________________________ Null Hypothesis________________________________________________ 2. Leslie has observed that more small dogs are adopted at animal shelters than large dogs. Write a directional, non- directional, and null hypothesis related to Leslie’s observation. Directional Hypothesis___________________________________________________ Non-Directional Hypothesis_________________________________________________ Null Hypothesis________________________________________________
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 16 3. Amy believes that as the number of years of driving experience people have increases the number of speeding tickets they receive decreases. Write a directional, non- directional, and null hypothesis related to Amy’s observation. Directional Hypothesis___________________________________________________ Non-Directional Hypothesis_________________________________________________ Null Hypothesis________________________________________________ 5. Roger has observed that students who take honors classes in college are less likely to drop out of college than students who do not. Write a directional, non- directional, and null hypothesis related to Roger’s observation. Directional Hypothesis___________________________________________________ Non-Directional Hypothesis_________________________________________________ Null Hypothesis________________________________________________ Source: http://www.angelfire.com/scifi/ricks/hypothesis.html
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 17 Worksheet 9 – Writing the Hypothesis Chose one (Directional or Non-directional) Directional Hypothesis H1: Null Hypothesis H0: _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Non- Directional Hypothesis H1: Null Hypothesis H0:
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 18 Step 9: Check up Please use the following example as a tool to measure your progress so far. Complete worksheet 8- summary. Example: Summary: Provide background (Problem Statement) for the issues Much collegiate sportswear is produced in sweatshops in third world countries. Laborers earn pennies a day under horrible working conditions. Yet consumers pay exorbitant prices for these goods. Summarize the purpose of your project and how you will accomplish it This paper will examine the degree to which consumers are able to influence corporations to do business in a socially responsible manner. Therefore, I will identify instances of abuses in the collegiate sportswear industry and demonstrate how consumers can make an impact upon corporations. Include a “working title” Impact of Ethical Consumerism on laborers in poor countries Indicate questions to be answered Key question: “What impact can ethical consumerism have on corporations and the environment?” Sub-questions: “What statistical results have been compiled by those who support ethical consumerism?” “Has Nike improved working conditions in their overseas manufacturing plants since their negative publicity?”
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 19 Worksheet 9- Summary Provide background (Problem Statement) for the issues Summarize the purpose of your project and how you will accomplish it Include a “working title” Indicate questions to be answered Adapted from : http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/literacy/ws1.pdf
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 20 Step 10: Put it all together Instructions: • Quantitative research- Complete the file: Introduction Guide Fill-in template (You can find this file on Blackboard/Course document) • Qualitative Research- Complete the file: Introduction Guide Fill-in Qualitative template (You can find this file on Blackboard/Course document) How to complete the template These templates are created to simplify the completion of the introduction section. Please note that the template is formatted following the guidelines posted in the syllabus. In the temple you will find a cover page, the problem statement, the research question(s) and the hypothesis (if applicable). Simply fill in the information requested on each page. You will also notice some paragraphs in red. This information in RED provides instructions and examples that you can follow to complete this assignment. Make sure you delete these red paragraphs when completing the assignment.
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 21 Section 2: Annotated Bibliography Annotated Bibliography: Source: http://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/ref/research/skill26.htm WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY? An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. THE PROCESS Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research. 1. Locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic. 2. Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style. 3. Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic. SAMPLE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY FOR A JOURNAL ARTICLE The following example uses the APA format for the journal citation. Waite, L. J., Goldschneider, F. K., & Witsberger, C. (1986). Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review, 51 (4), 541-554. The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 22 Critically Analyzing Information Sources You can begin evaluating a physical information source (a book or an article for instance) even before you have the physical item in hand. Appraise a source by first examining the bibliographic citation. The bibliographic citation is the written description of a book, journal article, essay, or some other published material that appears in a catalog or index. Bibliographic citations characteristically have three main components: author, title, and publication information. These components can help you determine the usefulness of this source for your paper. (In the same way, you can appraise a Web site by examining the home page carefully.) I. INITIAL APPRAISAL A. Author 1. What are the author’s credentials–institutional affiliation (where he or she works), educational background, past writings, or experience? Is the book or article written on a topic in the author’s area of expertise? You can use the various Who’s Who publications for the U.S. and other countries and for specific subjects and the biographical information located in the publication itself to help determine the author’s affiliation and credentials. 2. Has your instructor mentioned this author? Have you seen the author’s name cited in other sources or bibliographies? Respected authors are cited frequently by other scholars. For this reason, always note those names that appear in many different sources. 3. Is the author associated with a reputable institution or organization? What are the basic values or goals of the organization or institution? B. Date of Publication 1. When was the source published? This date is often located on the face of the title page below the name of the publisher. If it is not there, look for the copyright date on the reverse of the title page. On Web pages, the date of the last revision is usually at the bottom of the home page, sometimes every page. 2. Is the source current or out-of-date for your topic? Topic areas of continuing and rapid development, such as the sciences, demand more current information. On the other hand, topics in the humanities often require material that was written many years ago. At the other extreme, some news sources on the Web now note the hour and minute that articles are posted on their site. C. Edition or Revision Is this a first edition of this publication or not? Further editions indicate a source has been revised and updated to reflect changes in knowledge, include omissions, and harmonize with its intended reader’s needs. Also, many printings or editions may indicate that the work has become a standard source in the area and is reliable. If you are using a Web source, do the pages indicate revision dates?
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 23 D. Publisher Note the publisher. If the source is published by a university press, it is likely to be scholarly. Although the fact that the publisher is reputable does not necessarily guarantee quality, it does show that the publisher may have high regard for the source being published. E. Title of Journal Is this a scholarly or a popular journal? This distinction is important because it indicates different levels of complexity in conveying ideas. II. CONTENT ANALYSIS Having made an initial appraisal, you should now examine the body of the source. Read the preface to determine the author’s intentions for the book. Scan the table of contents and the index to get a broad overview of the material it covers. Note whether bibliographies are included. Read the chapters that specifically address your topic. Scanning the table of contents of a journal or magazine issue is also useful. As with books, the presence and quality of a bibliography at the end of the article may reflect the care with which the authors have prepared their work. A. Intended Audience What type of audience is the author addressing? Is the publication aimed at a specialized or a general audience? Is this source too elementary, too technical, too advanced, or just right for your needs? B. Objective Reasoning 1.Is the information covered fact, opinion, or propaganda? It is not always easy to separate fact from opinion. Facts can usually be verified; opinions, though they may be based on factual information, evolve from the interpretation of facts. Skilled writers can make you think their interpretations are facts. 2.Does the information appear to be valid and well-researched, or is it questionable and unsupported by evidence? Assumptions should be reasonable. Note errors or omissions. 3.Are the ideas and arguments advanced more or less in line with other works you have read on the same topic? The more radically an author departs from the views of others in the same field, the more carefully and critically you should scrutinize his or her ideas. 4.Is the author’s point of view objective and impartial? Is the language free of emotion-arousing words and bias? C. Coverage 1.Does the work update other sources, substantiate other materials you have read, or add new information? Does it extensively or marginally cover your topic? You should explore enough sources to obtain a variety of viewpoints.
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 24 2.Is the material primary or secondary in nature? Primary sources are the raw material of the research process. Secondary sources are based on primary sources. For example, if you were researching Konrad Adenauer’s role in rebuilding West Germany after World War II, Adenauer’s own writings would be one of many primary sources available on this topic. Others might include relevant government documents and contemporary German newspaper articles. Scholars use this primary material to help generate historical interpretations–a secondary source. Books, encyclopedia articles, and scholarly journal articles about Adenauer’s role are considered secondary sources. In the sciences, journal articles and conference proceedings written by experimenters reporting the results of their research are primary documents. Choose both primary and secondary sources when you have the opportunity. D. Writing Style Is the publication organized logically? Are the main points clearly presented? Do you find the text easy to read, or is it stilted or choppy? Is the author’s argument repetitive?
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 25 Assignment 3: Find 5 Journal articles (peer-Reviewed) and complete the following template for each article: Example: Clifton, D. (2006). Basic Needs in a New Light- A Colorful Diagnosis. International Journal of Realty Therapy, 26(1), 18-19. Clifton (2006) seeks to explain whether or not there is a correlation between colors and how it affects a person’s mood. The author goes on to explain that indeed colors, or better known as hues; do influence the way that we feel. Colors, especially primary colors, which can be found in nature, have always been apart of our biological make up. According to Dr. Alexander Schauss, director of the American Institute for Biosocial Research in Tacoma, Washington, as soon as color enters our sensory system, it stimulates the pituitary and pineal glands. This reaction then triggers hormones, which produce a lot of physiological responses. Therefore color has been proven to influence our thoughts, behaviors, and moods. Clifton (2006) findings are relative to the researcher’s topic because the researcher seeks to find out how the environment or physical atmosphere of a room can affect therapy. The researcher broke down the atmosphere into the five we ways the atmosphere is perceived, through sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. It is important therefore, for the researcher to understand how colors affect a persons behaviors, moods, and feelings. Clifton explained how human beings perceive colors.
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 26 Section 2: Literature Review (About 3 pages) ✓ 1 Introductory paragraph ✓ 2 paragraphs about article 1 ✓ 2 paragraphs about article 2 ✓ 2 paragraphs about article 3 ✓ 2 paragraphs about article 4 ✓ 2 paragraphs about article 5 ✓ 1 Concluding paragraph Introductory paragraph An introductory paragraph should include the following: • The purpose of the literature review (What is your goal with the literature review, what exactly you are trying to accomplish?) • Discuss the main topic addressed in the literature review • Provide a summary of the areas that you will be discussing in your literature review Example: This literature review examined the impact of entrepreneurs’ managerial capabilities (i.e. combinative capability, firms’ resources, organizational capabilities, tacit and explicit knowledge, and absorptive capacity) in strategic planning and business performance. The importance of the firm’s ability to cope with resources that contribute to the development of business strategies that lead to a sustainable competitive advantage and superior firm performance is discussed. Next, the decision quality process is explored to highlight the entrepreneurs’ habits, attitudes, and skills that support decision quality. Finally, different models available to measure organizational intelligence are discussed and how all of them ratify the importance of measuring organizational intelligence to evaluate business performance.
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 27 2 paragraphs about your article 1 • Explain in your own words the findings or conclusion of the article. • Discuss how these findings relate to your topic. Use proper citations. 2 paragraphs about your article 2 • Explain in your own words the findings or conclusion of the article. • Discuss how these findings relate to your topic. Use proper citations. 2 paragraphs about your article 3 • Explain in your own words the findings or conclusion of the article. • Discuss how these findings relate to your topic. Use proper citations. 2 paragraphs about your article 4 • Explain in your own words the findings or conclusion of the article. • Discuss how these findings relate to your topic. Use proper citations. 2 paragraphs about your article 5 • Explain in your own words the findings or conclusion of the article. • Discuss how these findings relate to your topic. Use proper citations. Concluding paragraph Provide a summary/recap of main ideas/concepts discussed in your literature review, and how all these ideas/concept will provide a framework to further discuss your research topic or understand/explain your findings or conclusions.
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 28 Section 3: Methodology This section will briefly describe the research methodology, the variables to be measured, and their method of measurement. In addition, the population, sample, research design, and data collection instrument will be presented. The research will be carried out using a [Quantitative/mixed] methodology to measure, an independent variable; [add independent variable here]; and the dependent variable (s) [add your dependent (s)]. Description of Research Method and Research Design In this proposed study a [Quantitative/mixed] research method will be used. A [Quantitative/mixed] research method will be used because [Add why you chose this specific research method]. The research designed selected for this proposed study is: [choose between Exploratory/Explanatory/Descriptive] The Research Question (s) Using a quantitative research design, this study attempts [add your research question here] The Research Hypotheses The following hypotheses may enable an examination of the relationship between [add here your variables] Null Hypothesis (H0): Alternative Hypothesis (Ha):
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 29 Variables Assessment The following variables will be used for the proposed research: [List all variables here]. [Variable 1] is defined as [ provide a definition based on the literature and include the citation in APA format). ] This variable will be measured by [Explain how this variable will be measured]. [ Variable 1 ] will be collected using [ Explain what data collection tool will be use to collect this data ]. [You will follow the same format for all variables.] Population and sample The population selected for this study is [describe your population- elaborate several sentences that will clearly describe your population]. The sample will be selected using a random [simple, systematic, stratified, cluster] or non-random [snowball, purposive, quota, convenience] sampling method. Instrumentation Elaborate a paragraph to describe the instrumentation that will be used to collect data. What kind of instrument will be used and why this instrument was selected to collect data. Describe the advantages of using the chosen instrument compared to others (you can use your text book to find these advantages or you can use any other literature available including google search. Make sure you use in-text citations when citing content from a source. Explain how the instrument was designed, its content, type of questions, or statements. (Please write several sentences) Explain when and how this instrument will be used, what safeguards will you use to ensure you protect all participants from any harm. (Please write several sentences)
SWK310 2020 DR. ANGEL RESTO 30 Data collection procedures Describe the entire process of data collection. Be precise and specific on how the data collection will take place. (Step by step guide). I need you to write a step by step guide from the moment you contact your participants to collect the data until you tally the data on excel. When writing this guide, I want you to think about specific instructions that anyone can follow in order to complete this research. You can use numbers or bullet points to organize all the steps. Method of Statistical Data Analysis For this project the researcher will use SPSS to run all statistical work and test the hypotheses. Some of the calculations that will be performed are: ANOVA, T-test, Chi-Square, and Correlations. All data will be tallied and summarized using excel. The results will be presented in graphs, charts and tables. This methodology presented the research question as well as the hypothesis that will help the researcher attempt to answer the research question. In addition, the population, sampling method, instrument and data collection process were presented.
Research Question
“What are the main obstacles that discourage older adults from joining the ‘Lunch with Us’ program, and how can these obstacles be addressed effectively?”
Research design
Is it exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory?
The research design for this study is primarily descriptive, aiming to identify the main obstacles discouraging older adults from joining the ‘Lunch with Us’ program and propose effective solutions.
Is it quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods?
The research is qualitative
Is it cross-sectional or longitudinal?
ross-sectional, as data will be collected at a single point in time.
Indicate your study design notation with a brief description
Research sample
Description of sample
The research sample will consist of older adults aged 60 and above who are currently participating in the ‘Lunch with Us’ program and the client who come to pick up the meal
Sampling method (random [simple, systematic, stratified, cluster] or non-random [snowball, purposive, quota, convenience])
Non-random sampling using a purposive approach, selecting participants who meet the study’s criteria.
Description of how you will recruit your sample
The survey will be hand out to the client who come to pick up the cold meal on Monday and to the clients who come to attent the lunch with us program
Projected sample size
The study aims to involve approximately 25 older adults.
Data Collection Procedures:
Participants will be informed about the study and invited to participate.
Informed consent will be obtained from willing participants.
Survey will be conducted to collect data.
Measurement Instrument:
The survey instrument will be developed based on existing literature and adapted to the specific context. It will collect information about demographics, reasons for not joining the program, and potential solutions.
open-ended questions to explore participants’ perspectives on the obstacles and effective solutions.
Data Collection Timeline:
Data collection will take place over with one survey
Data Collection Method:
Surveys will be administered in person or via phone or hand out survey document, depending on participants preferences.
Informed consent will be obtained from all participants, ensuring they are aware of the study’s purpose and their rights.
Participants will be assigned unique identifiers to anonymize their data.
Data will be securely stored, with limited access to the research team.
Any personal information will be kept confidential and will not be disclosed to external parties.
The research will comply with ethical guidelines and obtain necessary approvals from the relevant institutional review boards.

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