Market efficiency

finance writing question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

The assignment is as follows:
“Discuss the impact of innovation and technology on informational efficiency.”
It is required to use relevant academic sources, social media, and industry-related sources to back up your arguments.
Word count: 2000 words +-/10%
Please do not use chatGPT or any AI tools for writing, I will use the online checking tool and Turnitin AI to check it, thank you. Please make clear structure with a lot of diagrams and with subheadings into designing for this assignment, thank you!
Please find me at least 20 academic articles regarding the arguments in this field, and these must be high-quality academic articles from well-known publishers; for example, it could be from Science Direct, the Journal of Finance, the Journal of Financial Economics, or any academic sources which is highly cited, and it is important to provide high-quality academic journals with solid academic evidence to back the argument as well.
Please find me at least ten social media news, such as the outbreaking of some new innovations in information efficiency, with any relevant information regarding this field.
Please find me at least ten references for the industry reports regarding any innovations and technology on informational efficiency; these industry reports could be from the Bank of England, for example, and it has to be industry-related sources to back the arguments. The industry-related sources could have anything to do with Finance.
In total: 40 references minimum in the Harvard referencing style, note with the academic journals, and remember to put in the volume number and the page number into the academic journal as well.
Critically discuss – which is to discuss a specific topic and then criticize what is happening or whether the efficient market hypothesis is correct or not it is important we should make analyses regarding the strong, semi-strong, and weak efficient market hypothesis.
The assignment will be assessed in accordance with the criteria:
Content
Structure
Style
Word length
4.1) Appearance
The appearance of your work is an assessment criterion. You are, therefore, required to type your assignment/essay. Facilities for word-processing assignments/essays are available throughout the University campus. Accuracy and consistency are very important and you should always proof-read your assignment thoroughly before handing it in.
Below are some key aspects to the presentation of your assignment that should be considered. Again, these are intended as a general guideline and you should consult the information provided in your course booklet and on Learn for any specific requirements for a particular course.
4.5) Final Points to Note
Relevance
Try to ensure that the points you raise in your assignment are relevant. Avoid falling into the trap of writing down everything you can remember about the topic without evaluating how each point relates to the essay title. Your assignment should also be an analysis of facts, supporting your arguments/comments with relevant information and not purely a descriptive account.
General Reference guidelines
Read the references carefully so that in commenting on a point you do not over-simplify the argument supporting it. Do not make sweeping generalisations and avoid making statements of opinion unsupported by facts or any reasoned argument. The list of references you actually consult when writing your essay need not and should not be confined to those on the essay handout or course booklet. Any evidence of reading beyond the recommended list will be welcomed.
Review your work
Read your work critically before submitting it for assessment. The final review and proof read may not necessarily gain you extra marks but it may prevent you losing marks for easily avoidable errors. It is best to leave a short time between finishing your write up and proof reading so that you review your work with a fresh pair of eyes, so be sure to take this time into account during your essay preparation. When reviewing and editing:
– Check that your work is coherent and you have answered the question.
– Ensure spelling and grammar are correct – you can not rely 100% on the automatic
checkers, they are fallible, so always re-read your work with fresh eyes for typing errors.
– Check the presentation – paragraphs, headings, font and line spacing are consistent
throughout. Make sure you are within the word limit.
– Review your bibliography and ensure you have referenced your work fully and correctly.
Requirements:
3 Font There is no specified font type; this is really down to preference although Times New Roman and Arial tend to be the most common. You should avoid using elaborate font styles as this will make your assignment difficult to read. In general, the accepted font size will be 11 or 12 point. Line Spacing Line spacing should ideally be set to 2 lines apart; this makes the text much easier to read. It also leaves space for the marker to add any comments. Margins There is no set guideline for margins but it is advisable to have the left margin slightly larger than the right, e.g. 3cm left and 2cm right. Again this leaves space for markers comments. Paragraphs Paragraphs should be set out clearly and consistently and long paragraphs are not to be encouraged. There are two accepted methods of paragraph format: Indentation where each paragraph begins slightly indented from the left hand margin and the block method where paragraphs begin at the margin but are separated by a double-line space – equivalent to a missing line. 4.2) Organisation and Structure Assignments/essays should be systematic. The main points should be organised so that the argument or comment which you are making develops in a logical manner. This should be reflected in the formal structure you adopt; the use of sub-headings can sometimes be helpful. It can be useful to outline the argument at the outset, in terms of headings/subheadings to establish a logical flow to the argument. The required layout will vary depending on the type of academic writing you have been asked to produce and you should always consult the course booklet and/or assignment guidelines on Learn prior to writing up. 4.3) References and quotations It is important to acknowledge in your assignments/essays the sources of your information. Where a passing reference is made, then it suffices to refer to the author by name. It is permissible to reproduce passages, provided that these quotations are brief and acknowledged. Use quotation marks, and describe your source in the bibliography. Essays that make use of unacknowledged quotations will be penalised. The whole point of writing essays is to help you develop the ability to express your ideas in your own words. There are different ways of setting forth brief references and quotations. It is recommended that you should use the following method, known as the Harvard style, which has been widely adopted and is increasingly popular. The example below includes both brief references and a longer quotation: Examples As Lewis (1990, p 60) makes clear: “The complexity of this interaction makes it difficult to measure or even justify law as an independent factor in the conduct of industrial relations.” Moreover, the work of Brown and Wadhwani (1990) and Kessler and Bayliss (1992) confirm this view. The example quoted does not cover all cases. For instance, a publication may have no author but is the production of an institution. Thus a book issued by British Telecom in 1992 would be referred to as British Telecom (1992). Again, you may have to quote two works produced by the same author in the same year: they would have to be set out as (1992a) and (1992b). Tips for referencing:  Look at journals/text books
4  Keep your referencing style consistent throughout your assignment, do not mix different systems.  Get into the habit of recording bibliographical details as you take your notes, this will save you backtracking later to find it. As Lewis (1990, p 60) makes clear: “The complexity of this interaction makes it difficult to measure or even justify law as an independent factor in the conduct of industrial relations.” Moreover, the work of Brown and Wadhwani (1990) and Kessler and Bayliss (1992) confirm this view. 4.4) Bibliography and citation A bibliography is a list in alphabetical order of all sources (e.g. books, journal articles, newspapers) that you quote in, or consult for, your assignment/essay. An assignment/essay that has no bibliography will be penalised. This is how the full references would appear in the bibliography, again using the Harvard referencing style: Brown, W and Wadhwani, S (1990), “The Economic Effects of Industrial Relations Legislation Since 1979” National Institute Economic Review, Vol. 131, No. 1, February, pp 57-70. Kessler, S and Bayliss, F (1992), Contemporary British Industrial Relations, London: Macmillan. Lewis, R (1991), “Reforming Industrial Relations Law”, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Vol. 7, No. 1, February, pp .60-75. National electronic Library for Health. 2003. Can walking make you slimmer and healthier? (Hitting the headlines article). [Online] (Updated 16 Jan 2005) Available at: http://www.nhs.uk.hth.walking [Accessed 10 April 2005]. Please observe certain features of the above references:  the use of italics (or underlining) signals that this is the item that will appear in a library catalogue as the publication;  the first and third references are to journal articles. It is to be noted that the titles of the articles are in inverted commas, and the names of the journals are in italics (since it is the journal that you will look for in the library);  the second reference is to a book and so the title is italicised here ;  the sequence of the wording is not arbitrary: in the case of articles, it is author/year/ title/journal/volume number/part number and/or time of year; in the case of books it is: author/year/title/place of publication/name of publisher;  For websites found on the world wide web the required elements for a reference are: Authorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or web page. [Medium] Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) and additional details such as access or routing from the home page of the source. [Accessed date]. N.B. the URL should be underlined. If you are in doubt about compiling your bibliography, you may want to look at some learned journals in the library. Do also feel free to consult your course organiser. Above all, as with your referencing, try to be consistent in the way you present your bibliography. Definitions Bibliography: a listing at the end of your work of all books, journals and online materials you have consulted as preparation for your assignment. You do not need to have referred to all these sources directly in your text. Reference list: all books, journals and online materials you have referred to in your paper.
7 Late Submission of Coursework The Extensions and Special Circumstances team can consider cases for accepting late submissions up to a maximum of seven calendar days without exacting a penalty. Students are responsible for submitting their cases and supporting evidence in advance of the published deadline for the coursework, using the standard Coursework Extensions Request form available from: https://www.ed.ac.uk/student-administration/extensions-special-circumstances Late Penalties are applied as outlined in Regulation 28 of the Taught Assessment Regulations 2023/24: https://www.ed.ac.uk/sites/default/files/atoms/files/taughtassessmentregulations.pdf Citation and Referencing Guidance: http://www.citethemrightonline.com.ezproxy.is.ed.ac.uk/ The University takes plagiarism very seriously and is committed to ensuring that so far as possible it is detected and dealt with appropriately. Plagiarism is the act of copying or including in one’s own work, without adequate acknowledgement, intentionally or unintentionally, the work of another or one’s own previously assessed original work. It is academically fraudulent and an offence against University discipline, as outlined in Regulation 30 of the Taught Assessment Regulations 2023/24: https://www.ed.ac.uk/academic-services/policies-regulations/regulations/assessment-regulations/taught/section-b Information on academic misconduct and plagiarism, and how such cases will be handled, is given on the Academic Services website: https://www.ed.ac.uk/academic-services/students/conduct/academic-misconduct/plagiarism FEEDBACK ON COURSEWORK AND EXAMINATION Generic feedback on your alternative assessment, together with individual marks, will be available on Learn following the Board of Examiners in February 2024 (tbc). You will also be able to review your individual feedback electronically via Grademark on Learn from the same date. Your marks will be posted on Learn (together with generic feedback) as soon as possible after the Boards of Examiners’ meeting.
BEHAVIOURAL FINANCE AND MARKET EFFICIENCY FEEDBACK AND MARKING REPORT 2023-2024 E Fail <40 D Satisfactory (40-49) C Good (50-59) B Very good (60-69) A Excellent (70+) CONTENT Statement of objectives No statement, unclear or unrelated to topic Considerable lack of clarity and not fully relevant to topic Some lack of clarity and not always fully relevant to topic Clear but not always fully relevant to topic Clear and relevant to topic Answer the set of questions Majority of content is missing, incomplete and / or extremely inaccurate Content shows very basic understanding and includes several inaccuracies Content mostly accurate and shows a basic understanding of key ideas Content is accurate, thorough and shows clear understanding through appropriate explanations and examples Meets and exceeds expectations with rich explanation, examples and application of content ideas Description and explanation of the nature of the issue(s) Incoherent or no description and explanation of issues Some serious misunderstanding and/or limited ability to select material Lacks a breath of understanding and organisation of material Broad-based engagement and understanding of relevant material Exceptional broad understanding and critical insight when discussing material Clarity of analysis Characterised by irrelevance, brevity and/or superficiality; no or little use of appropriate and relevant content in the work Makes omissions and/or includes irrelevant material; uses some appropriate and relevant content to develop simple ideas in some parts of the work Applies knowledge without integration and synthesis of material; uses appropriate and relevant content to develop and explore ideas through most of the work Material organised in a clear and logical form; evidence of integration and occasional indication of synthesis; uses appropriate, relevant and compelling content to explore ideas with the context of the discipline and shape the whole work Sophisticated synthesis coupled with evidence of independent insight; uses appropriate, relevant and compelling content to illustrate mastery of the subject, conveying the student’s understanding and shaping the whole work Logic of argument Inability to formulate and communicate the argument; use of immaterial information; logical contradictions and misuse of evidence; mostly incoherent and difficult to follow Presents ideas in general terms; support for ideas is inconsistent; some distinctions need better clarification; reasoning is often unclear; weak progression of ideas and development Supports most ideas with effective examples to support argument; good use of references; makes key distinctions; reasoning may appear “routine”; little evidence of individual insight; moderately clear line of argument but with significant gaps Ideas developed in a logical fashion; organised in a clear and logical form; makes key distinctions and adds occasional individual critical insights; ordered and basically logical Evidence of independent critical insight, critical appraisal, appropriate use of relevant information and understanding of the issues involved; well-referenced; exemplary logical development throughout 9 Adequate evidence for arguments—presentation and relevance No use of data and evidence to support/refute arguments; fails to demonstrate the use of sources to support ideas or uses such sources inappropriately Use of evidence but this contains flaws and contractions; evidence not well-used to support/refute arguments; examines issue from a single perspective; demonstrates an attempt to use sources to support ideas Evidence generally presented in the correct manner but contains minor flaws; demonstrates an attempt to use credible and/or relevant sources to support ideas that are appropriate for the discipline Evidence presented in the correct manner but shows only simple indications of manipulation; demonstrates consistent use of credible, relevant sources to support ideas that are situated within the discipline Excellent manipulation of data and evidence to demonstrate argument; demonstrates skilful use of high-quality, credible, relevant sources to develop ideas that are appropriate for the discipline Accuracy of the evidence/data Factual errors and poor and incorrect use of evidence predominate Facts/data presented are sometimes accurate; evidence is not always used correctly to support the topic Most facts/data presented are accurate; evidence is not always used to support the topic Almost all facts/data presented are accurate and/or correctly relate to the topic All facts/data presented are accurate and correctly relate to the topic Appropriate use of data and/or evidence Poor or no evidence for interpretation of data and/or evidence Weak and/or incorrect use and interpretation of data and/or evidence Limited use of data and/or evidence; some instances of incorrect use or interpretation of data Correct use of data and evidence with indications of broad-based engagement with and understanding of the data and/or evidence Strong evidence of synthesis of data and/or evidence well laid-out and logically presented; indicators of authoritative understanding and independent insight Examples and illustrations Irrelevant or no use of examples and illustrations Poorly chosen and/or explained examples and illustrations Standard examples and illustrations that are well-explained Tailored examples and illustrations that are well-explained Examples and illustrations richly enhance and add to clarity of argument Development of ideas Most ideas unsupported; confusion between personal and external evidence; reasoning flawed Presents ideas in general terms; support for ideas is inconsistent; some distinctions need clarifying; reasoning unclear Occasionally presents ideas in general terms; support for ideas is reasonably consistent; a few distinctions need clarifying; reasoning is generally clear Supports most ideas with effective examples, references and details; makes key distinctions; reasoning clear Explores ideas vigorously; supports points fully using a balance of subjective and objective evidence; reasons effectively making useful distinctions Critical thinking Poor or inadequate decision making and analysis with very high degrees of ambiguity and little logic Decision making and analysis indicate considerable ambiguity and little analysis but some logic Decision making and analysis indicate ambiguity and some analysis but shows logic Decision making and analysis are made with no ambiguity; thinking shows some coherence and logic Decision making and analysis are clearly made, with no ambiguity; thinking shows impeccable coherence and logic 10 STRUCTURE Structure Inability to formulate and communicate ideas; disorganised structure Structure could be improved to show logical development of an argument Reasonably clear and coherent structure; generally presenting ideas and information in a logical way Work is mostly clear and coherent and showing logical, ordered thought Work is clear and coherent and demonstrates logical, ordered thought Clear use of sections / headings; Headings inappropriately used to create sections Headings and sections demarcate the report’s narrative but are too long/short or placed inappropriately Headings and sections demarcate the report’s narrative; acceptable standard to logical development of arguments Headings and sections clarify the report’s narrative; argument developed in a clear logical manner Headings and sections enhance the report’s narrative; argument developed in a clear and logical manner STYLE Fluency of writing / clarity (use of English; grammar and punctuation) Lack of attention to spelling, grammar and referencing; problems with use of English; sentence structure inadequate for precision and clarity; spelling and grammatical errors are seriously distracting Flaws in referencing; some evidence of poor use of English; minor spelling and/or grammatical errors that cause noticeable distraction and loss of clarity Writing is grammatically correct; minor flaws in writing technique that do not detract from precision and clarity; presence of a few errors is not distracting Good use of English and well-thought out writing; precise and clear writing with no grammatical flaws; no noticeable writing errors Very clear writing style in the appropriate voice ; excellent use of variation in sentence and paragraph structure that reinforces precision and clarity Use of logic and organisation Does not develop ideas cogently; uneven and ineffective organisation; unclear introduction or conclusion Develops and organises ideas in paragraphs that are not necessarily connected; some overall organisation but some ideas seem illogical and / or unrelated; unfocused introduction and conclusion Develops and organises ideas in paragraphs that have occasional transition; overall adequately organised but some ideas could be better ordered to develop the logic; reasonably focused introduction and conclusion Develops unified and coherent ideas within paragraphs with generally adequate transitions; clear overall organisation that relates most ideas together; good introduction and conclusion Develops ideas cogently; organises them logically with paragraphs and connects them with effective transitions; clear and specific introduction and conclusion TECHNICAL SKILLS Use of figures / tables (use of images, graphs, exhibits, including notation, appendices) Inappropriate or incorrect figures / tables used Figures and tables are not well embedded in the report’s narrative and may be poorly labelled, Figures and tables are correct but not well used in the report’s narrative Figures and tables are very well labelled and add to understanding in the narrative Outstanding use of (possibly original) figures and tables that enhance narrative 11 explained or of limited relevance Quality of referencing / bibliography (incl. referencing style) Incorrect use of referencing style and/or presentation of bibliography/references; inappropriate and/or narrow range of references used Evident errors in the use of references in body of text; minor flaws in presentation of bibliography / references; narrow range of references Bibliography/references correctly done; narrow range of references used; some errors in referencing in text Bibliography/references correctly done; adequate references are drawn on and referencing in text is done correctly; no errors in referencing style Bibliography/references correctly done; draws on a wide, relevant literature base; referencing is to publishing standard Markers overall assessment and specific comments: Mark awarded (out of 100%): Date: Signature:

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