Management Question

management multi-part question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

Chapter 9 Homework
Complete the Leader’s Self-Insights for the chapter. Write at least a paragraph for each. Describe in that paragraph your results (specific scores) and what the results mean. Include corroborating examples from your personal experiences and beliefs to support or refute the findings in each of the instruments. Use APA format with 12 font, a heading, and double space.
Requirements: as deeded please
The Leadership Experience Sixth Edition Leader’s Self-Insight Self Assessments
Leader’s Self-Insight 1.1 Your Learning Style: Using Multiple Intelligences Instructions: Multiple-intelligence theory suggests that there are several different ways of learning about things in a topsy-turvy world; hence there are multiple “intelligences,” of which five are interpersonal (learn via interactions with others), intrapersonal (own inner states), logical–mathematical (rationality and logic), verbal-linguistic (words and language), and musical (sounds, tonal patterns, and rhythms). Most people prefer one or two of the intelligences as a way of learning, yet each person has the potential to develop skills in each of the intelligences. The items below will help you identify the forms of intelligence that you tend to use or enjoy most, as well as the forms that you use less. Please check each item below as Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I like to work with and solve complex problems. 2. I recently wrote something that I am especially proud of. 3. I have three or more friends. 4. I like to learn about myself through personality tests. 5. I frequently listen to music on the radio or iPod-type player. 6. Math and science were among my favorite subjects. 7. Language and social studies were among my favorite subjects. 8. I am frequently involved in social activities. 9. I have or would like to attend personal growth seminars. 10. I notice if a melody is out of tune or off key. 11. I am good at problem solving that requires logical thinking. 12. My conversations frequently include things I’ve read or heard about. 13. When among strangers, I easily find someone to talk to. 14. I spend time alone meditating, reflecting, or thinking. 15. After hearing a tune once or twice, I am able to sing it back with some accuracy. Scoring and Interpretation Count the number of items checked Mostly True that represent each of the five intelligences as indicated below. • Questions 1, 6, 11: Logical–mathematical intelligence. # Mostly True = . • Questions 2, 7, 12: Verbal–linguistic intelligence. # Mostly True = . • Questions 3, 8, 13: Interpersonal intelligence. # Mostly True = . • Questions 4, 9, 14: Intrapersonal intelligence.
# Mostly True = . • Questions 5, 10, 15: Musical intelligence. # Mostly True = . Educational institutions tend to stress the logical–mathematical and verbal–linguistic forms of learning. How do your intelligences align with the changes taking place in the world? Would you rather rely on using one intelligence in depth or develop multiple intelligences? Any intelligence above for which you received a score of three is a major source of learning for you, and a score of zero means you may not use it at all. How do your intelligences fit your career plans and your aspirations for the type of leader you want to be? Sources: Based on Kirsi Tirri, Petri Nokelainen, and Martin Ubani, “Conceptual Definition and Empirical Validation of the Spiritual Sensitivity Scale,”Journal of Empirical Theology 19 (2006), pp. 37–62; and David Lazear, “Seven Ways of Knowing: Teaching for Multiple Intelligences,” (Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Publishing, 1991).
Leader’s Self-Insight 1.2 Your Leadership Potential Instructions: Questions 1–6 below are about you right now. Questions 7–14 are about how you would like to be if you were the head of a major department at a corporation. Answer Mostly False or Mostly True to indicate whether the item describes you accurately or whether you would strive to perform each activity as a department head. Now Mostly False Mostly True 1. When I have a number of tasks or homework assignments to do, I set priorities and organize the work to meet the deadlines. 2. When I am involved in a serious disagreement, I hang in there and talk it out until it is completely resolved. 3. I would rather sit in front of my computer than spend a lot of time with people. 4. I reach out to include other people in activities or when there are discussions. 5. I know my long-term vision for career, family, and other activities. 6. When solving problems, I prefer analyzing things myself to working through them with a group of people. Head of Major Department Mostly False Mostly True 1. I would help subordinates clarify goals and how to reach them. 2. I would give people a sense of long-term mission and higher purpose. 3. I would make sure jobs get out on time. 4. I would scout for new product or service opportunities. 5. I would give credit to people who
Head of Major Department Mostly False Mostly True do their jobs well. 6. I would promote unconventional beliefs and values. 7. I would establish procedures to help the department operate smoothly. 8. I would verbalize the higher values that I and the organization stand for. Scoring and Interpretation Count the number of Mostly True answers to even-numbered questions: . Count the number of Mostly True answers to odd-numbered questions: . Compare the two scores. The even-numbered items represent behaviors and activities typical of leadership. Leaders are personally involved in shaping ideas, values, vision, and change. They often use an intuitive approach to develop fresh ideas and seek new directions for the department or organization. The odd-numbered items are considered more traditional management activities. Managers respond to organizational problems in an impersonal way, make rational decisions, and work for stability and efficiency. If you answered yes to more even-numbered than odd-numbered items, you may have potential leadership qualities. If you answered yes to more odd-numbered items, you may have management qualities. Management qualities are an important foundation for new leaders because the organization first has to operate efficiently. Then leadership qualities can enhance performance. Both sets of qualities can be developed or improved with awareness and experience. Sources: Based on John P. Kotter, Leading Change (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1996), p. 26; Joseph C. Rost, Leadership for the Twenty-first Century (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993), p. 149; and Brian Dumaine, “The New Non-Manager Managers,” Fortune (February 22, 1993), pp. 80–84.
Leader’s Self-Insight 1.3 Are You on a Fast Track to Nowhere? Instructions: Many people on the fast track toward positions of leadership find themselves suddenly derailed and don’t know why. Many times, a lack of people skills is to blame. To help you determine whether you need to work on your people skills, take the following quiz, answering each item as Mostly False or Mostly True. Think about a job or volunteer position you have now or have held in the past as you answer the following items. People Skills Mostly False Mostly True 1. Other people describe me as very good with people. 2. I frequently smile and laugh with teammates or classmates. 3. I frequently reach out to engage people, even strangers. 4. I often express appreciation to other people. Dealing with Authority Mostly False Mostly True 1. I quickly speak out in meetings when leaders ask for comments or ideas. 2. If I see a leader making a decision that seems harmful, I speak up. 3. I experience no tension when interacting with senior managers, either inside or outside the organization. 4. I have an easy time asserting myself toward people in authority. Networking Mostly False Mostly True 1. I spend part of each week networking with colleagues in other departments. 2. I have joined multiple organizations for the purpose of making professional contacts. 3. I frequently use lunches to meet and network with new people. 4. I actively maintain contact with peers from previous organizations. Scoring and Interpretation Tally the number of “Mostly Trues” checked for each set of questions. • People Skills: • Dealing with Authority: • Networking: If you scored 4 in an area, you’re right on track. Continue to act in the same way. If your score is 2–3, you can fine-tune your skills in that area. Review the questions where you said Mostly False and work to add those abilities to your leadership skill set.
A score of 0–1 indicates that you may end up dangerously close to derailment. You should take the time to do an in-depth self-assessment and find ways to expand your interpersonal skills.
Leader’s Self-Insight 1.4 (Online-Only) Intolerance of Ambiguity Instructions: Rate each statement below from 1-7 based on whether you Strongly Agree through Strongly Disagree. There are no right or wrong answers so answer honestly to receive accurate feedback. [Insert seven columns to the right with headings of Strongly Agree, Moderately Agree, Slightly Agree, neither Agree nor Disagree, Slightly Disagree, Moderately Disagree, and Strongly Disagree] Strongly Strongly Agree Disagree 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1. An expert who doesn’t come up with a definite answer probably doesn’t know too much. 2. I would like to live in a foreign country for all while. 3. There is really no such thing as a problem that can’t be solved. 4. People who live their lives to a schedule probably miss most of the joy of living. 5. A good job is one where what is done and how it is to be done are always clear. 6. It is more fun to tackle a complicated problem than to solve a simple one. 7. In the long run it is possible to get more done by tackling small, simple problems rather than large and complicated ones. 8. Often the most interesting and stimulating people are those who don’t mind being different and original. 9. What we are used to is always preferable to what is unfamiliar. 10. People who insist upon a yes or no answer just don’t know how complicated things really are. 11. A person who leaves and even, regular life in which few surprises or unexpected happenings arise really has a lot to be grateful for. 12. Many of our most important decisions are based upon insufficient information. 13. I like parties were I know most of the people more than once were all or most of the people are complete strangers.
14. Teachers or supervisors who hand out vague assignments give one a chance to show initiative and originality. 15. The sooner we all acquire similar values and ideals the better. 16. A good teacher is one who makes you wonder about your way of looking at things. Scoring and Interpretation Sum the odd-numbered statements, giving 7 points for each Strongly Agree, 6 points for each Moderately Agee, 5 points for Slightly Agree, 4 points for Neither Agree nor Disagree, 3 points for Slightly Disagree, 2 points for Moderately Disagree, and 1 point for each Strongly Disagree. Reverse score the even-numbered statements, giving 7 points for each Strongly Disagree through 1 point for each Strongly Agree.) Total Score: _____. These questions were originally designed to help identify students who would be comfortable with the ambiguity associated with the practice of medicine. Leaders also must manage ambiguity in their dealings with rapid change, strategy, people, and social and political dynamics. Intolerance of ambiguity means that an individual tends to perceive novel, complex, and ambiguous situations as potentially threatening rather than as desirable. A high score means greater intolerance of ambiguity. A low score means that you tolerate ambiguity and likely see promise and potential in ambiguous situations. Leaders make most decisions under conditions of some or much ambiguity, so learning to be comfortable with ambiguity is something to work toward as a leader. New York psychology students had an average score of 50.9 on the above questions, New York evening students 53.0, Nursing students 51.9, Far East medical students, 44.6, and Midwestern medical students, 45.2. Source: S. Budner, “Intolerance of Ambiguity as a Personality Variable,” Journal of Personality 30 (1962), pp. 29-59.
Leader’s Self-Insight 2.1 Rate Your Optimism Instructions: This questionnaire is designed to assess your level of optimism as reflected in your hopefulness about the future. There are no right or wrong answers. Please indicate your personal feelings about whether each statement is Mostly False or Mostly True by checking the answer that best describes your attitude or feeling. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I nearly always expect a lot from life. 2. I try to anticipate when things will go wrong. 3. I always see the positive side of things. 4. I often start out expecting the worst, although things usually work out okay. 5. I expect more good things to happen to me than bad. 6. I often feel concern about how things will turn out for me. 7. If something can go wrong for me, it usually does. 8. Even in difficult times, I usually expect the best. 9. I am cheerful and positive most of the time. I consider myself an optimistic person. Scoring and Interpretation Give yourself one point for checking Mostly True for items 1, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10. Also give yourself one point for checking Mostly False for items 2, 4, 6, 7. Enter your score here: . If your score is 8 or higher, it may mean that you are high on optimism. If your score is 3 or less, your view about the future may be pessimistic. For the most part, people like to follow a leader who is optimistic rather than negative about the future. However, too much optimism may exaggerate positive expectations that are never fulfilled. If your score is low, what can you do to view the world through a more optimistic lens? Source: These questions were created based on several sources.
Leader’s Self-Insight 2.2 What’s Your Leadership Orientation? Instructions: The following questions ask about your personal leadership orientation. Each item describes a specific kind of behavior but does not ask you to judge whether the behavior is desirable or undesirable. Read each item carefully. Think about how frequently you engage in the behavior described by the item in a work or school group. Please indicate whether each statement is Mostly False or Mostly True by checking the answer that best describes your behavior. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I put into operation suggestions agreed to by the group. 2. I treat everyone in the group with respect as my equal. 3. I back up what other people in the group do. 4. I help others with their personal problems. 5. I bring up how much work should be accomplished. 6. I help assign people to specific tasks. 7. I frequently suggest ways to fix problems. 8. I emphasize deadlines and how to meet them. Scoring and Interpretation Consideration behavior score—count the number of checks for Mostly True for items 1–4. Enter your consideration score here:. A higher score (3 or 4) suggests a relatively strong orientation toward consideration behavior by you as a leader. A low score (2 or less) suggests a relatively weak consideration orientation. Initiating structure behavior score—count the number of checks for Mostly True for items 5–8. Enter your initiating structure score here: . A higher score (3 or 4) suggests a relatively strong orientation toward initiating structure behavior by you as a leader. A low score (2 or less) suggests a relatively weak orientation toward initiating structure behavior. Source: Sample items adapted from: Edwin A Fleishman’s Leadership Opinion Questionnaire. (Copyright 1960, Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.) This version is based on Jon L. Pierce and John W. Newstrom, Leaders and the Leadership Process: Readings, Self-Assessments & Applications, 2nd ed. (Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill, 2000).
Leader’s Self-Insight 2.3 Your “LMX” Relationship Instructions: What was the quality of your leader’s relationship with you? Think back to a job you held and recall your feelings toward your leader, or if currently employed use your supervisor. Please answer whether each item below was Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I very much liked my supervisor as a person. 2. My supervisor defended my work to people above him if I made a mistake. 3. The work I did for my supervisor went well beyond what was required. 4. I admired my supervisor’s professional knowledge and ability. 5. My supervisor was enjoyable to work with. 6. I applied extra effort to further the interests of my work group. 7. My supervisor championed my case to others in the organization. 8. I respected my supervisor’s management competence. Scoring and Interpretation LMX theory is about the quality of a leader’s relationship with subordinates. If you scored 6 or more Mostly True, your supervisor clearly had an excellent relationship with you, which is stage two in Exhibit 2.6. You had a successful dyad. If your supervisor had an equally good relationship with every subordinate, that is a stage-three level of development (partnership building). If you scored 3 or fewer Mostly True, then your supervisor was probably at level one, perhaps with different relationships with subordinates, some or all of which were unsuccessful. What do you think accounted for the quality of your and other subordinates’ relationships (positive or negative) with your supervisor? Discuss with other students to learn why some supervisors have good LMX relationships. Source: Based on Robert C. Liden and John M. Maslyn, “Multidimensionality of Leader–Member Exchange: An Empirical Assessment through Scale Development,” Journal of Management 24 (1998), pp. 43–72.
Leader’s Self-Insight 2.4 (Online-Only) How Self-Confident Are You? This questionnaire is designed to assess your level of self-confidence as reflected in a belief in your ability to accomplish a desired outcome. There are no right or wrong answers. Please indicate your personal feelings about whether each statement is Mostly False or Mostly True by checking the answer that best describes your attitude or feeling. Mostly False Mostly True 1. When I make plans, I am certain I can make them work. __________ __________ 2. One of my problems is that I often cannot get down to work when I should. __________ __________ 3. When I set important goals for myself, I rarely achieve them. __________ __________ 4. I often give up on things before completing them. __________ __________ 5. I typically put off facing difficult situations. __________ __________ 6. If something looks too complicated, I may not even bother to try it. __________ __________ 7. When I decide to do something, I go right to work on it. __________ __________ 8. When an unexpected problem occurs, I __________ __________
Mostly False Mostly True often don’t respond well. 9. Failure just makes me try harder. __________ __________ 10. I consider myself a self-reliant person. __________ __________ Scoring and Interpretation: Give yourself one point for checking Mostly True for items 1, 7, 9, and 10. Also give yourself one point for checking Mostly False for items 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8. Enter your score here: _____. If your score is 8 or higher, it may mean that you are high on self-confidence. If your score is 3 or less, your self-confidence may be low. If your score is low, what can you do to increase your self-confidence? Source: This is part of the general self-efficacy subscale of the self-efficacy scale published in M. Sherer, J. E. Maddux, B. Mercadante, W. Prentice-Dunn, B. Jacobs, and R. W. Rogers, “The Self-Efficacy Scale: Construction and Validation,” Psychological Reports 51 (1982), pp. 663-671.
Leader’s Self-Insight 3.1 T–P Leadership Questionnaire: An Assessment of Style Instructions: The following items describe aspects of leadership behavior.Assume you are the appointed leader of a student group and feel the pressure for performance improvements to succeed. Respond to each item according to the way you would most likely act in this pressure situation. Indicate whether each item below is Mostly False or Mostly True for you as a work-group leader. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I would hold members personally accountable for their performance. 2. I would assign members to specific roles and tasks. 3 I would ask the members to work harder. 4. I would check on people to know how they are doing. 5. I would focus more on execution than on being pleasant with members. 6. I would try to make members’ work more pleasant. 7. I would focus on maintaining a pleasant atmosphere on the team. 8. I would let members do their work the way they think best. 9. I would be concerned with people’s personal feelings and welfare. 10. I would go out of my way to be helpful to members. Scoring and Interpretation The T–P Leadership Questionnaire is scored as follows: Your “T” score represents task orientation and is the number of Mostly True answers for questions 1–5. Your “P” score represents your people or relationship orientation and is the number of Mostly True answers for questions 6–10. A score of 4 or 5 would be considered high for either T or P. A score of 0 or 1 would be considered low. T = . P =. Some leaders focus on people needs, leaving task concerns to followers. Other leaders focus on task details with the expectation that followers will carry out instructions. Depending on the situation, both approaches may be effective. The important issue is the ability to identify relevant dimensions of the situation and behave accordingly. Through this questionnaire, you can identify your relative emphasis on the two dimensions of task orientation (T) and people orientation (P). These are not opposite approaches, and an individual can rate high or low on either or both.
What is your leadership orientation? Compare your results from this assignment to your result from the quiz in Leader’s Self-Insight 2.2 in the previous chapter. What would you consider an ideal leader situation for your style? Source: Based on the T–P Leadership Questionnaire as published in “Toward a Particularistic Approach to Leadership Style: Some Findings,” by T. J. Sergiovanni, R. Metzcus, and L. Burden, American Educational Research Journal 6, no. 1 (1969), pp. 62–79.
Leader’s Self-Insight 3.2 Are You Ready? Instructions: A leader’s style can be contingent upon the readiness level of followers. Think of yourself working in your current or former job. Answer the questions below based on how you are on that job. Please answer whether each item is Mostly False or Mostly True for you in that job. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I typically do the exact work required of me, nothing more or less. 2. I am often bored and uninterested in the tasks I have to perform. 3. I take extended breaks whenever I can. 4. I have great interest and enthusiasm for the job. 5. I am recognized as an expert by colleagues and coworkers. 6. I have a need to perform to the best of my ability. 7. I have a great deal of relevant education and experience for this type of work. 8. I am involved in “extra-work” activities such as committees. 9. I prioritize my work and manage my time well. Scoring and Interpretation In the situational theory of leadership, the higher the follower’s readiness, the more participative and delegating the leader can be. Give yourself one point for each Mostly False answer to items 1–3 and one point for each Mostly True answer to items 4–9. A score of 8–9 points would suggest a “very high” readiness level. A score of 7–8 points would indicate a “high” readiness level. A score of 4–6 points would suggest “moderate” readiness, and 0–3 points would indicate “low” readiness. What is the appropriate leadership style for your readiness level? What leadership style did your supervisor use with you? What do you think accounted for your supervisor’s style? Discuss your results with other students to explore which leadership styles are actually used with subordinates who are at different readiness levels. © Cengage Learning
Leader’s Self-Insight 3.3 Measuring Substitutes for Leadership Instructions: Think about your current job or a job you have held in the past. Please answer whether each item below is Mostly False or Mostly True for you in that job. Mostly False Mostly True 1. Because of the nature of the tasks I perform, there is little doubt about the best way to do them. 2. My job duties are so simple that almost anyone could perform them well after a little instruction. 3. It is difficult to figure out the best way to do many of my tasks and activities. 4. There is really only one correct way to perform most of the tasks I do. 5. After I’ve completed a task, I can tell right away from the results I get whether I have performed it correctly. 6. My job is the kind where you can finish a task and not know if you’ve made a mistake or error. 7. Because of the nature of the tasks I do, it is easy for me to see when I have done something exceptionally well. 8. I get lots of satisfaction from the work I do. 9. It is hard to imagine that anyone could enjoy performing the tasks I have performed on my job. 10. My job satisfaction depends primarily on the nature of the tasks and activities I perform. Scoring and Interpretation For your task structure score, give yourself one point for Mostly True answers to items 1, 2, and 4, and for a Mostly False answer to item 3. This is your score for Task Structure:
For your task feedback score, give yourself one point for Mostly True answers to items 5 and 7, and for a Mostly False answer to item 6. This is your score for Task Feedback: For your intrinsic satisfaction score, score one point for Mostly True answers to items 8 and 10, and for a Mostly False answer to item 9. This is your score for Intrinsic Satisfaction: A high score 3 or 4) for Task Structure or Task Feedback indicates a high potential for those elements to act as a substitute for task-oriented leadership. A high score (3) for Intrinsic Satisfaction indicates the potential to be a substitute for people-oriented leadership. Does your leader adopt a style that is complementary to the task situation, or is the leader guilty ofleadership overkill? How can you apply this understanding to your own actions as a leader? Source: Based on “Questionnaire Items for the Measurement of Substitutes for Leadership,” Table 2 in Steven Kerr and John M. Jermier, “Substitutes for Leadership: Their Meaning and Measurement,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 22 (1978), pp. 375–403.
Leader’s Self-Insight 3.4 (Online-Only) Is Your Style Flexible? Think about your behavior in work and social situations. Answer the questions below based on how you try to behave in diverse situations. Please answer whether each item is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. In different situations with different people I often act like a very different person. 2. I would not change my opinions or behavior in order to please someone else. 3. I do not attempt to say or do things that make a good image for other people. 4. Even if I am not liking something, I often act like I do. 5. In order to make a good impression, I try to be what people expect me to be. 6. I am good at improvisational games like charades. 7. Once I know what a situation calls for, it is easy for me to act accordingly. 8. I tend to show different sides of myself to different people. 9. I can adjust my behavior to meet the requirements of any situation. 10. I have trouble changing the image that I present
to other people. Scoring and Interpretation In the situational theories of leadership, leaders may need to act differently depending on the situation, such as the readiness level of followers. The self-observation and ability to behave and express oneself differently in response to situational cues is called self-monitoring. High self-monitors can vary their behavior and emotional expression quite markedly across situations, and thus may be able to change their leadership style according to the specific needs of followers or other aspects of the situation. Low self-monitors tend to behave the same way in different situations. Give yourself one point for each Mostly True answer to items 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and one point for each Mostly False answer to items 2, 3, 10. A score of 8–10 points would suggest a “high” self-monitor and thus a more flexible leadership style. A score of 4-7 points would indicate a “moderate” level of self-monitoring. A score of 0–3 points would indicate “low” self-monitoring. What level of self-monitoring do you think is appropriate for a leader? Does changing behavior to suit the situation seem real? Discuss your results with other students to explore the extent to which leadership styles might vary to meet the needs of subordinates who are at different readiness levels. Source: Adapted from Mark Snyder, “Self-Monitoring of Expressive Behavior,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1974, 30, 4, 526-537; Richard D. Lennox and Raymond N. Wolfe, “Revision of the Self-Monitoring Scale, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1984, 46, 6, 1349-1364; and Stephen R. Briggs, Jonathan M. Cheek, and Arnold H. B Buss, “And Analysis of the Self-Monitoring Scale,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, 38, 4, 679-686.
Leader’s Self-Insight 4.1 The Big Five Personality Dimensions Instructions: Each individual’s collection of personality traits is different; it is what makes us unique. But, although each collection of traits varies, we all share many common traits. The following phrases describe various traits and behaviors. Rate how accurately each statement describes you, based on a scale of 1 to 5, with being very inaccurate and very accurate. Describe yourself as you are now, not as you wish to be. There are no right or wrong answers. 1 2 3 4 5 Very Inaccurate Very Accurate Extroversion I love large parties. 1 2 3 4 5I feel comfortable around people. 1 2 3 4 5I talk to a lot of different people at social gatherings. 1 2 3 4 5I like being the center of attention. 1 2 3 4 5Neuroticism (Low Emotional Stability) I often feel critical of myself. 1 2 3 4 5I often envy others. 1 2 3 4 5I am temperamental. 1 2 3 4 5I am easily bothered by things. 1 2 3 4 5Agreeableness I am kind and sympathetic. 1 2 3 4 5I have a good word for everyone. 1 2 3 4 5I never insult people. 1 2 3 4 5I put others first. 1 2 3 4 5Openness to New Experiences I am imaginative. 1 2 3 4 5I prefer to vote for liberal political candidates. 1 2 3 4 5I really like art. 1 2 3 4 5I love to learn new things. 1 2 3 4 5
Conscientiousness I am systematic and efficient. 1 2 3 4 5 I pay attention to details. 1 2 3 4 5 I am always prepared for class. 1 2 3 4 5 I put things back where they belong. 1 2 3 4 5 Which are your most prominent traits? For fun and discussion, compare your responses with those of classmates. Source: These questions were adapted from a variety of sources.
Leader’s Self-Insight 4.2 Measuring Locus of Control Instructions: For each of these questions, indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree using the following scale: 1 = Strongly disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Slightly disagree 4 = Neither agree nor disagree 5 = Slightly agree6 = Agree 7 = Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1. When I get what I want, it’s usually because I worked hard for it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. When I make plans, I am almost certain to make them work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. I prefer games involving some luck over games requiring pure skill. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. I can learn almost anything if I set my mind to it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. My major accomplishments are entirely due to my hard work and ability. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. I usually don’t set goals, because I have a hard time following through on them. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. Competition discourages excellence. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. Often people get ahead just by being lucky. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9. On any sort of exam or competition, I like to know how well I do relative to everyone else. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10. It’s pointless to keep working on something that’s too difficult for me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Scoring and Interpretation To determine your score, reverse the values you selected for questions 3, 6, 7, 8, and 10 (1 = 7, 2 = 6, 3 = 5, 4 = 4, 5 = 3, 6 = 2, 7 = 1). For example, if you strongly disagreed with the statement in question 3, you would have given it a value of 1. Change this value to a 7. Reverse the scores in a similar manner for questions 6, 7, 8, and 10. Now add the point values from all questions together. Your score: This questionnaire is designed to measure locus of control beliefs. Researchers using this questionnaire in a study of college students found a mean of for men and for women, with a standard deviation of 6 for each. The higher your score on this questionnaire, the more you tend to believe that you are generally responsible for what happens to you; in other words, high scores are associated with internal locus of control. Low scores are associated with external locus of control. Scoring low indicates that you tend to believe that forces beyond your control, such as powerful other people, fate, or chance, are responsible for what happens to you. Source: Adapted from J. M. Burger, Personality: Theory and Research (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1986), pp. 400–401. Original source for Burger’s questionnaire is D. L. Paulhus, “Sphere-Specific Measures of Perceived Control,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44 (1983), pp. 1253–1265.
Leader’s Self-Insight 4.3 Instrumental and End Values Instructions: In each column below, place a check mark by the five values that are most important to you. After you have checked five values in each column, rank-order the checked values in each column from 1 to 5, with 1 = most important and 5 = least important. Rokeach’s Instrumental and End Values End Values Instrumental ValuesA comfortable life Ambition Equality Broad-mindedness An exciting life Capability Family security Cheerfulness Freedom Cleanliness Health Courage Inner harmony Forgiveness Mature love Helpfulness National security Honesty Pleasure Imagination Salvation Intellectualism Self-respect Logic A sense of Ability to love accomplishment Loyalty Social recognition Obedience True friendship Politeness Wisdom Responsibility A world at peace Self-control A world of beauty NOTE: The values are listed in alphabetical order, and there is no one-to-one relationship between the end and instrumental values. Scoring and Interpretation End values, according to Rokeach, tend to fall into two categories—personal and social. For example, mature love is a personal end value and equality is a social end value. Analyze the five end values you selected and their rank order, and determine
whether your primary end values tend to be personal or social. What do your five selections together mean to you? What do they mean for how you make life decisions? Compare your end value selections with another person, with each of you explaining what you learned about your end values from this exercise. Instrumental values also tend to fall into two categories—morality and competence. The means people use to achieve their goals might violate moral values (e.g., be dishonest) or violate one’s personal sense of competence and capability (e.g., be illogical). Analyze the five instrumental values you selected and their rank order, and determine whether your primary instrumental values tend to focus on morality or competence. What do the five selected values together mean to you? What do they mean for how you will pursue your life goals? Compare your instrumental value selections with another person and describe what you learned from this exercise. Warning: The two columns shown to the left do not represent the full range of instrumental and end values. Your findings would change if a different list of values were provided. This exercise is for discussion and learning purposes only and is not intended to be an accurate assessment of your actual end and instrumental values. Sources: Robert C. Benfari, Understanding and Changing Your Management Style (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999), pp. 178–183; and M. Rokeach,Understanding Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1979).
Leader’s Self-Insight 4.4 What’s Your Thinking Style? Instructions: The following characteristics are associated with the four quadrants identified by Herrmann’s whole brain model. Think for a moment about how you approach problems and make decisions. In addition, consider how you typically approach your work or class assignments and how you interact with others. Circle 10 of the terms below that you believe best describe your own cognitive style. Try to be honest and select terms that apply to you as you are, not how you might like to be. There are no right or wrong answers. A B CDAnalytical Organized FriendlyHolisticFactual Planned ReceptiveImaginative Directive Controlled EnthusiasticIntuitiveRigorous Detailed UnderstandingSynthesizing Realistic Conservative ExpressiveCuriousIntellectual Disciplined EmpatheticSpontaneous Objective Practical TrustingFlexibleKnowledgeable Industrious SensitiveOpen-Minded Bright Persistent PassionateConceptual Clear Implementer HumanisticAdventurous The terms in Column A are associated with logical, analytical thinking (Quadrant A); those in Column B with organized, detail-oriented thinking (Quadrant B); those in Column C with empathetic and emotionally based thinking (Quadrant C); and those in Column D with integrative and imaginative thinking (Quadrant D). Do your preferences fall primarily in one of the four columns, or do you have a more balanced set of preferences across all four? If you have a strong preference in one particular quadrant, were you surprised by which one? © Cengage Learning
Leader’s Self-Insight 4.5 Personality Assessment: Jung’s Typology Instructions: For each item below, circle either “a” or “b.” In some cases, both “a” and “b” may apply to you. You should decide which is more like you, even if it is only slightly more true. 1. I would rather a. Solve a new and complicated problem b. Work on something that I have done before 2. I like to a. Work alone in a quiet place b. Be where “the action” is 3. I want a boss who a. Establishes and applies criteria in decisions b. Considers individual needs and makes exceptions 4. When I work on a project, I a. Like to finish it and get some closure b. Often leave it open for possible change 5. When making a decision, the most important considerations are a. Rational thoughts, ideas, and data b. People’s feelings and values 6. On a project, I tend to a. Think it over and over before deciding how to proceed b. Start working on it right away, thinking about it as I go along 7. When working on a project, I prefer to a. Maintain as much control as possible b. Explore various options 8. In my work, I prefer to a. Work on several projects at a time, and learn as much as possible about each one b. Have one project that is challenging and keeps me busy 9. I often
a. Make lists and plans whenever I start something and may hate to seriously alter my plans b. Avoid plans and just let things progress as I work on them 10. When discussing a problem with colleagues, it is easy for me a. To see “the big picture” b. To grasp the specifics of the situation 11. When the phone rings in my office or at home, I usually a. Consider it an interruption b. Don’t mind answering it 12. The word that describes me better is a. Analytical b. Empathetic 13. When I am working on an assignment, I tend to a. Work steadily and consistently b. Work in bursts of energy with “down time” in between 14. When I listen to someone talk on a subject, I usually try to a. Relate it to my own experience and see if it fits b. Assess and analyze the message 15. When I come up with new ideas, I generally a. “Go for it” b. Like to contemplate the ideas some more 16. When working on a project, I prefer to a. Narrow the scope so it is clearly defined b. Broaden the scope to include related aspects 17. When I read something, I usually a. Confine my thoughts to what is written there b. Read between the lines and relate the words to other ideas 18. When I have to make a decision in a hurry, I often a. Feel uncomfortable and wish I had more information
b. Am able to do so with available data 19. In a meeting, I tend to a. Continue formulating my ideas as I talk about them b. Only speak out after I have carefully thought the issue through 20. In work, I prefer spending a great deal of time on issues of a. Ideas b. People 21. In meetings, I am most often annoyed with people who a. Come up with many sketchy ideas b. Lengthen the meeting with many practical details 22. I tend to be a. A morning person b. A night owl 23. My style in preparing for a meeting is a. To be willing to go in and be responsive b. To be fully prepared and sketch out an outline of the meeting 24. In meetings, I would prefer for people to a. Display a fuller range of emotions b. Be more task oriented 25. I would rather work for an organization where a. My job was intellectually stimulating b. I was committed to its goals and mission 26. On weekends, I tend to a. Plan what I will do b. Just see what happens and decide as I go along 27. I am more a. Outgoing b. Contemplative
28. I would rather work for a boss who is a. Full of new ideas b. Practical In the following, choose the word in each pair that appeals to you more: 29. a. Social b. Theoretical 30. a. Ingenuity b. Practicality 31. a. Organized b. Adaptable 32. a. Activity b. Concentration Scoring Count one point for each item listed below that you circled in the inventory. Score for I Score for E Score for S Score for N (Introversion) (Extroversion) (Sensing) (Intuition) 2a 2b 1b 1a 6a 6b 10b 10a 11a 11b 13a 13b 15b 15a 16a 16b 19b 19a 17a 17b 22a 22b 21a 21b
Score for I Score for E Score for S Score for N (Introversion) (Extroversion) (Sensing) (Intuition) 27b 27a 28b 28a 32b 32a 30b 30a Totals Circle the one with more points: Circle the one with more points: I or E S or N (If tied on I/E, don’t count #11) (If tied on S/N, don’t count #16) Score for T Score for F Score for J Score for P (Thinking) (Feeling) (Judging) (Perceiving) 3a 3b 4a 4b 5a 5b 7a 7b 12a 12b 8b 8a 14b 14a 9a 9b 20a 20b 18b 18a 24b 24a 23b 23a 25a 25b 26a 26b 29b 29a 31a 31b Totals Circle the one with more points: T or F (If tied on T/F, don’t count #24) Circle the one with more points: J or P (If tied on J/P, don’t count #23) Your Score Is: I or E S or N T or F J or P Your type is: (example: INTJ, ESFP, etc.) Scoring and Interpretation
The scores above measure variables similar to the MBTI™ assessment based on the work of psychologist Carl Jung. The MBTI™ assessment, which was described in the chapter text, identifies four dimensions and different “types.” The dominant characteristics associated with each dimension and each type are shown below. Remember that no one is a pure type; however, each individual has preferences for introversion versus extroversion, sensing versus intuition, thinking versus feeling, and judging versus perceiving. Based on your scores on the survey, read the description of your dimension and type in the chart. Do you believe the description fits your personality? Characteristics associated with each dimension Extroversion: Energized by outer world of people and objects, broad interests, thinks while speaking Introversion: Energized by inner world of thoughts and ideas, deep interests, thinks before speaking Sensing: Likes facts, details, and practical solutions. Intuition: Likes meanings, theory, associations among data, and possibilities. Thinking: Makes decisions by analysis, logic, and impersonal criteria. Feeling: Makes decisions based on values, beliefs, and concern for others. Judging: Lives life organized, stable, systematic, and under control. Perceiving: Lets life happen, spontaneous, open-ended, last minute. Characteristics associated with each type ISTJ: Organizer, trustworthy, responsible, good trustee or inspector. ISFJ: Quiet, conscientious, devoted, handles detail, good conservator. INFJ: Perseveres, inspirational, quiet caring for others, good counselor. INTJ: Independent thinker, skeptical, theory, competence, good scientist. ISTP: Cool, observant, easy-going, good craftsperson. ISFP: Warm, sensitive, team player, avoids conflict, good artist. INFP: Idealistic, strong values, likes learning, good at noble service. INTP: Designer, logical, conceptual, likes challenges, good architect. ESTP: Spontaneous, gregarious, good at problem solving and promoting. ESFP: Sociable, generous, makes things fun, good as entertainer. ENFP: Imaginative, enthusiastic, starts projects, good champion. ENTP: Resourceful, stimulating, dislikes routine, tests limits, good inventor. ESTJ: Order, structure, practical, good administrator or supervisor. ESFJ: People skills, harmonizer, popular, does things for people, good host. ENFJ: Charismatic, persuasive, fluent presenter, sociable, active, good teacher. ENTJ: Visionary planner, takes charge, hearty speaker, natural leader. Source: From Organizational Behavior: Experience and Cases, 4th ed., by Dorothy Marcic. © 1995. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning: http://www.thomsonrights.com. Fax: 800-730-2215.
Leader’s Self-Insight 4.6 (Online-Only) Theory X and Theory Y The following are various behaviors in which a leader may engage when relating to followers. Read each statement carefully and rate each one Mostly False or Mostly True to reflect the extent to which you would use that behavior. Mostly Mostly False True 1. Closely supervise my subordinates in order to get better work from them. ______ ______ 2. Set the goals and objectives for my subordinates and sell them on the merits of my plans. ______ ______ 3. Set up controls to ensure that my subordinates are getting the job done. ______ ______ 4. Make sure that my subordinates’ work is planned out for them. ______ ______ 5. Check with my subordinates daily to see if they need any help. ______ ______ 6. Step in as soon as reports indicate that the job is slipping. ______ ______ 7. Push my people to meet schedules if necessary. ______ ______ 8. Have frequent meetings to learn from others what is going on. ______ ______ Scoring and Interpretation: Add the total number of Mostly True answers and mark your score on the scale below. Theory X tends to be “old-style” management and Theory Y “new-style,” because the styles are based on different attitudes and assumptions about people. To learn more about these assumptions, you can refer to Exhibit 4.3 in the text and review the assumptions related to Theory X and Theory Y. Strong Theory X
assumptions are typically considered inappropriate for today’s workplace. Where do you fit on the X–Y scale? Does your score reflect your perception of yourself as a current or future leader? X-Y Scale Theory X 10 ———————-5——————-0 Theory Y Source: This questionnaire is from William Pfeiffer and John E. Jones, eds., “Supervisory Attitudes: The X–Y Scale,” The 1972 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1972), pp. 65–68. This material is used by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The X–Y scale was adapted from an instrument developed by Robert N. Ford of AT&T for in-house manager training.
Leader’s Self-Insight 5.1 Mindfulness Instructions: Think back to how you behaved toward others at work or in a group when you were in a formal or informal leadership position. Please respond to the following items based on how frequently you exhibited each behavior. Indicate whether each item is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. Enjoyed hearing new ideas. 2. Challenged someone to think about an old problem in a new way. 3. Tried to integrate conversation points at a higher level. 4. Felt appreciation for the viewpoints of others. 5. Would ask someone about the assumptions underlying his or her suggestions. 6. Came to my own conclusion despite what others thought. 7. Was open about myself to others. 8. Encouraged others to express opposing ideas and arguments. 9. Fought for my own ideas. 10. Asked “dumb” questions. 11. Offered insightful comments on the meaning of data or issues. 12. Asked questions to prompt others to think more about an issue. 13. Expressed a controversial opinion. 14. Encouraged opposite points of view. 15. Suggested ways of improving my and others’ ways of doing things. Scoring and Interpretation
Give yourself one point for each Mostly True checked for items 1–8 and 10–15. Give yourself one point for checking Mostly False for item 9. A total score of 12 or higher would be considered a high level of overall mindfulness. There are three subscale scores that represent three dimensions of leader mindfulness. For the dimension of open or beginner’s mind, sum your responses to questions 1, 4, 7, 9, and 14. For the dimension of independent thinking, sum your scores for questions 3, 6, 11, 13, and 15. For the dimension of intellectual stimulation, sum your scores for questions 2, 5, 8, 10, and 12. • My scores are: • Open or Beginner’s Mind: • Independent Thinking: • Intellectual Stimulation: These scores represent three aspects of leader mindfulness—what is called open mind or beginner’s mind, independent thinking, and intellectual stimulation. A score of 4 or higher on any of these dimensions is considered high because many people do not practice mindfulness in their leadership or group work. A score of 3 is about average, and 2 or less would be below average. Compare your three subscale scores to understand the way you use mindfulness. Analyze the specific questions for which you did not get credit to see more deeply into your pattern of mindfulness strengths or weaknesses. An open mind, independent thinking, and intellectual stimulation are valuable qualities to develop for effective leadership. Sources: The questions above are based on ideas from R.L. Daft and R.M. Lengel, Fusion Leadership, Chapter 4 (Berrett Koehler, 2000); B. Bass and B. Avolio, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, 2nd ed. (Mind Garden, Inc.); and P.M. Podaskoff, S.B. MacKenzie, R.H. Moorman, and R. Fetter, “Transformational Leader Behaviors and Their Effects on Followers’ Trust in Leader, Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors,” Leadership Quarterly 1, no. 2 (1990), pp. 107–142.
Leader’s Self-Insight 5.2 Emotional Intelligence Instructions: For each of the following items, rate how well you display the behavior described. Before responding, try to think of actual situations in which you have had the opportunity to use the behavior. Indicate whether each item below is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. Associate different internal physiological cues with different emotions. 2. Relax when under pressure in situations. 3. Know the impact that your behavior has on others. 4. Initiate successful resolution of conflict with others. 5. Know when you are becoming angry. 6. Recognize when others are distressed. 7. Build consensus with others. 8. Produce motivation when doing uninteresting work. 9. Help others manage their emotions. 10. Make others feel good. 11. Identify when you experience mood shifts. 12. Stay calm when you are the target of anger from others. 13. Know when you become defensive. 14. Follow your words with actions. 15. Engage in intimate conversations with others. 16. Accurately reflect people’s feelings back to them. Scoring and Interpretation Sum your Mostly True responses to the questions to obtain your overall emotional intelligence score. Your score for self-awareness is the total of questions 1, 5, 11, and 13. Your score for self-management is the total of questions 2, 8, 12, and 14. Your score for social awareness is the sum of questions 3, 6, 9, and 15. Your score for relationship management is the sum of questions 4, 7, 10, and 16. This questionnaire provides some indication of your emotional intelligence. If you received a total score of 14 or more, you are certainly considered a person with high emotional intelligence. A score from 10 to 13 means you have a good platform of emotional intelligence from which to develop your leadership capability. A score of 7 to 9 would be moderate emotional intelligence. A score below 7 indicates that you realize that you are probably below average in emotional intelligence. For each of the four components of emotional intelligence—self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management—a score of 4 is considered high, whereas a score of 2 or fewer would be considered low. Review the discussion in this chapter about the four components of emotional intelligence and think about what you might do to develop those areas where you scored low. Compare your scores to those of other students. What can you do to improve your scores? Source: Adapted from Hendrie Weisinger, Emotional Intelligence at Work (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998), pp. 214–215.
Leader’s Self-Insight 5.3 Love or Fear? Instructions: The following items describe reasons why you work. Answer the questions twice, the first time for doing work (or homework) that is not your favorite and the second time for doing a hobby or sports activity that you enjoy.Consider each item thoughtfully and respond according to your inner motivation and experience. Indicate whether each item below is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I feel it is important to perform well so I don’t look bad. 2. I have to force myself to complete the task. 3. I don’t want to have a poor outcome or get a poor grade. 4. I don’t want to embarrass myself or do less well than others. 5. The experience leaves me feeling relieved that it is over. 6. My attention is absorbed entirely in what I am doing. 7. I really enjoy the experience. 8. Time seems to pass more quickly than normal. 9. I am completely focused on the task at hand. 10. The experience leaves me feeling great. Scoring and Interpretation These items reflect motivation shaped by either love or fear. Your “fear of failure” score is the number of Mostly True answers for questions 1–5. Your “love of task” score is the number of Mostly True answers for questions 6–10. A score of 4 or 5 would be considered high for either love or fear, and a score of 0–2 would be considered low. You would probably score more points for “love of task” for your hobby or sports activity than for homework. Some people are motivated by high internal standards and fear of not meeting those standards. This may be called fear of failure, which often spurs people to great accomplishment. Love of task provides a great intrinsic pleasure but won’t always lead to high achievement. Love of task is related to the idea of “flow” wherein people become fully engaged and derive great satisfaction from their activity. Would love or fear influence your choice to become a leader or how you try to motivate others? Discuss with other students the relative importance of love or fear motivation in your lives. Love in the workplace means genuinely caring for others and sharing one’s knowledge, understanding, and compassion to enable others to grow and succeed. © Cengage Learning
Leader’s Self-Insight 5.4 (Online-Only) What Is Your Systems Approach? As a leader, how do you approach problems in your work unit? Please answer whether each item below is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly Mostly False True 1. I find myself losing sight of long-term goals when there is a short-term crisis. _____ _____ 2. I prefer complex to simple problems and projects. _____ _____ 3. I am good at mapping out steps needed to complete a project. _____ _____ 4. I make most decisions without needing to know an overall plan. _____ _____ 5. I keep my personal books and papers in good order. _____ _____ 6. I prefer tasks that stretch my thinking ability. _____ _____ 7. I think about how my behavior relates to outcomes I desire. _____ _____ 8. I like to be part of a situation where results are measured and count for something. _____ _____ Scoring and Interpretation: Work-unit tasks and problems are managed via a manager’s “systems” thinking. Systems thinking considers how component parts of system interact to achieve desired goals. Systems thinking means seeing the world in an organized way and thinking about underlying cause-effect relationships. Give yourself 1 point for each Mostly True answer to items 2, 3, and 5 to 8 and 1 point for each Mostly False answer
to items 1 and 4. A score of 6 or above means that you appear to have a natural orientation toward systems thinking. You see the world in an organized way and focus on cause-effect relationships that produce outcomes. If you scored 3 or less, you probably are not very focused on relationships among elements in a system. You may not be interested or have the time to understand complex relationships. As a leader, you may have to put extra effort into understanding system relationships to produce the outcomes you and the organization desire.
Leader’s Self-Insight 6.1 Ethical Maturity Instructions: Think about how you typically behave and make decisions and respond honestly to the statements below. Answer as you actually behave, not as you would want to behave. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I can clearly state the principles and values that guide my actions. 2. I promptly own up to my own mistakes and failures. 3. I am able to quickly “forgive and forget” when someone has made a serious mistake that affects me. 4. When making a difficult decision, I take the time to assess my principles and values. 5. I have a reputation among my friends and co-workers for keeping my word. 6. I intentionally reflect on my mistakes to improve my performance. 7. When someone asks me to keep a confidence, I always do so completely. 8. When things go wrong, I seldom blame others or circumstances. 9. I am able to forgive myself soon after a serious mistake. 10. My coworkers would say that my behavior is very consistent with my values. Scoring and Interpretation Give yourself point for each Mostly True answer you checked above. Total Score . Your score for the ethical maturity scale suggests whether you are on track to become an ethical leader as described in Exhibit 6.1. A high score of 8–10 is suggestive of someone who is more concerned with values and other people than with self-interest. A score of 0–3 would be considered low, and a score of 4–7 is the middle ground. Your score also provides a clue about your level of moral development shown in Exhibit 6.4. The postconventional level of development means that you consider principles and values, take personal responsibility, and do not blame others. A high score suggests that you have a highly developed moral sense. A lower score suggests you may be at the conventional or even pre-conventional level. Reflect on what your score means to you. Source: Based on and adapted from Doug Lennick and Fred Kiel, Moral Intelligence: Enhancing Business Performance and Leadership Success (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Cordon School Publications, 2005), pp. 251–263.
Leader’s Self-Insight 6.2 Your Servant Leadership Orientation Instructions: Think about situations in which you were in a formal or informal leadership role in a group or organization. Imagine using your personal approach as a leader. To what extent does each of the following statements characterize your leadership? Please answer whether each item below is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. My actions meet the needs of others before my own. 2. I explicitly enable others to feel ownership for their work. 3. I like to consult with people when making a decision. 4. I’m a perfectionist. 5. I like to be of service to others. 6. I try to learn the needs and perspectives of others. 7. I consciously utilize the skills and talents of others. 8. I am assertive about the right way to do things. 9. I give away credit and recognition to others. 10. I believe that others have good intentions. 11. I quickly inform others of developments that affect their work. 12. I tend to automatically take charge. 13. I encourage the growth of others, expecting nothing in return. 14. I value cooperation over competition as a way to energize people.
Mostly False Mostly True 15. I involve others in planning and goal setting. 16. I put people under pressure when needed. Scoring and Interpretation There are four subscale scores that represent four dimensions of leadership—authoritarian, participative, stewardship, and servant. For each dimension below, give yourself one point for each Mostly True response to the items indicated. My leadership scores are: • Authoritarian, items 4, 8, 12, 16: • Participative, items 2, 6, 10, 14: • Stewardship, items 3, 7, 11, 15: • Servant, items 1, 5, 9, 13: These scores represent the four aspects of leadership called authoritarian, participative, stewardship, and servant as described in the text and illustrated in Exhibit 6.5. A score of 3–4 on any of these dimensions would be considered above average, and a score of 0–1 is below average. Compare your four scores to each other to understand your approach to stewardship and servant leadership. On which of the four dimensions would you like to have the highest score? The lowest? Study the specific questions on which you scored Mostly True or Mostly False to analyze your pattern of strengths and weaknesses. It is not possible to display all four dimensions of leadership simultaneously, so you should think about the dimension you want to emphasize to reflect your leader ideal. © Cengage Learning
Leader’s Self-Insight 6.3 Assess Your Moral Courage Instructions: Think about situations in which you either assumed or were given a leadership role in a group or organization. Imagine using your own courage as a leader. To what extent does each of the following statements characterize your leadership? Please answer whether each item below is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I risk substantial personal loss to achieve the vision. 2. I take personal risks to defend my beliefs. 3. I say no even if I have a lot to lose. 4. I consciously link my actions to higher values. 5. I don’t hesitate to act against the opinions and approval of others. 6. I quickly tell people the truth, even when it is negative. 7. I feel relaxed most of the time. 8. I speak out against organizational injustice. 9. I stand up to people if they make offensive remarks. 10. I act according to my conscience even if it means I lose status and approval. Scoring and Interpretation Each question above pertains to some aspect of displaying courage in a leadership situation. Add up your points for Mostly True answers: . If you received a score of 7 or higher, you have real potential to act as a courageous leader. A score below 3 indicates that you avoid difficult issues or have not been in situations that challenge your moral leadership. Is your score consistent with your understanding of your own courage? Look at the individual questions for which you scored Mostly False or Mostly True and think about your specific strengths and weaknesses. Compare your score to that of other students. How might you increase your courage as a leader? Do you want to? © Cengage Learning
Leader’s Self-Insight 6.4 (Online-Only) Avoidance Scale Instructions: Think about how you typically behave and make decisions and respond authentically to the statements below. Answer as you actually behave, not as you would want to behave. [Insert two columns to the right with headings of Mostly False and Mostly True.] Mostly False Mostly True 1. I often find myself worrying about something. ______ ______ 2. At times I am so restless that I cannot sit still for very long. ______ ______ 3. My feelings are hurt more easily than other people. ______ ______ 4. I am more self-conscious than other people. ______ ______ 5. I take things hard. ______ ______ 6. I often compromise in situations to avoid conflict. ______ ______ 7. When I make a decision, I may second-guess it later. ______ ______ 8. I feel self-conscious when a significant person compliments me. ______ ______ 9. Instead of wanting to celebrate, I feel a “let down” after completing an important project. ______ ______ 10. When I play a game and people are watching, I am very aware of their presence. ______ ______ Scoring and Interpretation. Give yourself 1 point for each Mostly True answer above and write your score here. Total Score ____. Your answers to these questions indicate your general level of anxiety or fear that would cause you to act cautiously and to avoid difficult situations that require courage. A score of 7-10 would mean that you likely feel fears that would have to be overcome in order to act forthrightly and courageously. You may be dealing with F.E.A.R., False Evidence Appearing Real. A score of 0-4 likely means that feelings of fear and avoidance are low for you and would be easily transcended to act courageously. Sources: Based on Janet A. Taylor, “A Personality Scale of Manifest Anxiety,” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 48, (2), 1953, pp. 285-290; and Donnah Canavan-Gumpert, Katherine Garner, and Peter
Gumpert, The Success-Fearing Personality: Theory and Research with Implications for the Social Psychology of Achievement (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1978).
Leader’s Self-Insight 7.1 The Power of Followership Instructions: For each of the following statements, think of a specific situation in which you worked for a boss in an organization. Then answer whether each item is Mostly False or Mostly True for you in that follower situation. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I often commented to my manager on the broader importance of data or events. 2. I thought carefully and then expressed my opinion about critical issues. 3. I frequently suggested ways of improving my and others’ ways of doing things. 4. I challenged my manager to think about an old problem in a new way. 5. Rather than wait to be told, I would figure out the critical activities for achieving my unit’s goals. 6. I independently thought up and championed new ideas to my boss. 7. I tried to solve the tough problems rather than expect my leader to do it. 8. I played devil’s advocate if needed to demonstrate the upside and downside of initiatives. 9. My work fulfilled a higher personal goal for me. 10. I was enthusiastic about my job. 11. I understood my leader’s goals and worked hard to meet them. 12. The work I did was significant to me. 13. I felt emotionally engaged throughout a typical day. 14. I had the opportunity to do what I do best each day. 15. I understood how my role contributed to the company’s success. 16. I was willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond what was normally expected. Scoring and Interpretation Questions 1–8 measure independent thinking. Sum the number of Mostly True answers checked and write your score below. Questions 9–16 measure active engagement. Sum the number of Mostly True answers checked and write your score below. Independent Thinking Total Score
Active Engagement Total Score These two scores indicate how you carried out your followership role. A score of 2 or below is considered low. A score of 6 or higher is considered high. A score of 3–5 is in the middle. Based on whether your score is high, middle, or low, assess your followership style below. Followership Style Independent Thinking Score Active Engagement Score Effective High High Alienated High Low Conformist Low High Pragmatist Middle Middle Passive Low Low How do you feel about your followership style? Compare your style with that of others in your class. What might you do to be more effective as a follower? Sources: Based on Douglas R. May, Richard L. Gilson, and Lynn M. Harter, “The Psychological Conditions of Meaningfulness, Safety, and Availability and the Engagement of the Human Spirit at Work,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 77 (March 2004), pp. 11–38; Robert E. Kelley, The Power of Followership: How to Create Leaders People Want to Follow and Followers Who Lead Themselves (New York: Doubleday, 1992); and Towers Perrin HR Services, “Working Today: Understanding What Drives Employee Engagement,” (2003), www.towersperrin.com.
Leader’s Self-Insight 7.2 Are You an Annoying Follower? 1. If you think there might be a mistake in something you’ve done, what do you do? a. Fess up. It’s better to share your concerns up front so your boss can see if there is a problem and get it corrected before it makes him look bad. b. Try to hide it for now. Maybe there isn’t really a problem, so there’s no use in making yourself look incompetent. 2. How do you handle a criticism from your boss? a. Poke your head in her door or corner her in the cafeteria multiple times to make sure everything is okay between the two of you. b. Take the constructive criticism, make sure you understand what the boss wants from you, and get on with your job. 3. You’re in a crowded elevator with your boss after an important meeting where you’ve just landed a million-dollar deal. You: a. Celebrate the victory by talking to your boss about the accomplishment and the details of the meeting. b. Keep your mouth shut or talk about non-business-related matters. 4. Your boss has an open-door policy and wants people to feel free to drop by her office any time to talk about anything. You pop in just after lunch and find her on the phone. What do you do? a. Leave and come back later. b. Wait. You know most of her phone calls are quick, so she’ll be free in a few minutes. 5. You’ve been called to the boss’s office and have no idea what he wants to talk about. a. You show up on time, empty-handed, to concentrate on what the boss has to say. b. You show up on time with a pen, paper, and your calendar or mobile device. 6. You’ve been trying to get some face time with your boss for weeks and luckily catch him or her in the bathroom. You: a. Take care of personal business and get out of there. b. Grab your chance to schmooze with the boss. Ask a question or tell a joke. You might not get another chance any time soon. Here are the appropriate follower behaviors. 1. A. Honest self-assessment and fessing up to the boss builds mutual confidence and respect. Nothing destroys trust faster than incompetence exposed after the fact.
2. B. David Snow, former president and COO of Empire Blue Cross and Blue Shield, refers to insecure, thin-skinned people who have to check in frequently after a criticism as door swingers. Door swingers are annoying in both our personal and work lives. Just get on with things. 3. B. You have no idea who else is in the elevator. Keep your mouth shut. You can crow about the new deal later in private. 4. A. There’s nothing worse than having someone hovering while you’re trying to carry on a phone conversation. Leave a note with your boss’s assistant or come back later. 5. B. You can usually be safe in assuming your boss hasn’t called you in for idle chitchat. Never show up without a pen and paper or tablet to make notes. 6. A. At best, to use the bathroom as a place to try to impress the boss makes you look desperate. It also shows a lack of tact and judgment. Most of these seem obvious, but based on interviews with leaders, subordinates commit these mistakes over and over in the workplace. Keep these missteps in mind so you don’t become an annoying follower. Source: Based on William Speed Weed, Alex Lash, and Constance Loizos, “30 Ways to Annoy Your Boss,” MBA Jungle (March–April 2003), pp. 51–55.
Leader’s Self-Insight 7.3 Ready for Coaching Instructions: Think about your attitude toward personal growth and answer the following questions Mostly False or Mostly True. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I have a strong desire to improve myself. 2. I welcome suggestions for better ways of behaving. 3. I am really honest with myself about my strengths and weaknesses. 4. I welcome negative feedback. 5. I follow through on commitments to change myself. 6. I am very open with my peers about any mistakes I make. 7. I draw my boss’s attention to my successes. 8. After making a mistake, I immediately let the affected people know about it and propose a solution. Scoring and Interpretation Give yourself 1 point for each Mostly True answer. Total Score . Leadership coaching is one way leaders provide valuable feedback that helps people achieve their potential. The attitude of the follower is equally important to that of the leader for a successful coaching relationship. Your score for this questionnaire pertains to your readiness to receive coaching and feedback from another person. If your score is 6 or above, you probably have the correct mindset to benefit from leadership coaching. If your score is 3 or below you may not be receptive to coaching. If you are not open to receiving coaching for yourself, do you think you would be a good coach to others? Would you like to change your coaching mindset? What is the first step you might take? Source: Based on Susan Battley, Coached to Lead: How to Achieve Extraordinary Results with an Executive Coach (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006), pp. 20–40.
Leader’s Self-Insight 7.4 (Online-Only) Destructive Boss Instructions: Think about the worst boss you have ever had and remember what working for that person was like. If your current boss is your worst, think of your current situation. Below you will find a list of specific behaviors that may describe your worst boss. Respond whether the statement is Mostly False or Mostly True for that boss. Answer honestly to receive accurate feedback. [[Insert two columns to the right with headings of Mostly False and Mostly True]]] Mostly False Mostly True 1. My boss places brutal pressure on subordinates. ______ ______ 2. My boss tells subtle lies such as saying one thing and doing another. ______ ______ 3. My boss often takes credit for the work that others have done. ______ ______ 4. My boss spends too much time promoting him or herself. ______ ______ 5. My boss finds a way to blame others for his or her mistakes. ______ ______ 6. My boss tends to act in ways that divide employees against one ______ ______ another. 7. My boss has a grandiose sense of self-worth, such as arrogance and bragging. ______ ______ 8. My boss is smooth and superficially charming. ______ ______ 9. My boss is a con artist and uses or manipulates people. ______ ______ 10. My boss lacks remorse after he or she causes harm to someone. ______ ______ 11. My boss has no empathy. ______ ______ 12. My boss sometimes spreads misleading information. ______ ______ Scoring and Interpretation. Give yourself 1 point for each Mostly True answer to the 12 items above. Score: _____ Destructive bosses can cause social and psychological harm to their employees. The very worst bosses have psychopathic tendencies, which include being extremely selfish, callous, and remorseless about the use of
others. More than two “Mostly True” answers on the destructive boss questions means you should probably get the boss to a psychiatrist, or visit one yourself if you are still working for this person. A zero score means you are likely working for a decent human being who is not totally self-absorbed and can treat you with respect. Source: Based on James B. Shaw, Anthony Erickson, and Michael Harvey, “A Method for Measuring Destructive Leadership and Identifying Types of Destructive Leaders in Organizations,” The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011), pp. 575-590; Kevin Voigt, “Bad Bosses: The Psycho-path to Success?” CNN.com, January 20, 2012 http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/96/open_boss-quiz.html; and “Quiz: Is Your Boss a Psychopath?” Fast Company.com, July 1, 2005 http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/96/open_boss-quiz.html
Leader’s Self-Insight 8.1 Are Your Needs Met? Instructions: Think of a specific job (current or previous) you have held. If you are a full-time student, think of your classes and study activities as your job. Please answer the following questions about those work activities. Indicate whether each item is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I feel physically safe at work. 2. I have good health benefits. 3. I am satisfied with what I’m getting paid for my work. 4. I feel that my job is secure as long as I want it. 5. I have good friends at work. 6. I have enough time away from my work to enjoy other things in life. 7. I feel appreciated at work. 8. People at my workplace respect me as a professional and expert in my field. 9. I feel that my job allows me to realize my full potential. 10. I feel that I am realizing my potential as an expert in my line of work. 11. I feel I’m always learning new things that help me to do my work better. 12. There is a lot of creativity involved in my work. Scoring and Interpretation Compute the number of Mostly True responses for the questions that represent each level of Maslow’s hierarchy, as indicated in the next column, and write your score where indicated: • Questions 1–2: Physiological and health needs. Score = . • Questions 3–4: Economic and safety needs.
Score = . • Questions 5–6: Belonging and social needs. Score = . • Questions 7–8: Esteem needs. Score = . • Questions 9–12: Self-actualization needs. Score = . These five scores represent how you see your needs being met in the work situation. An average score for overall need satisfaction (all questions) is typically 6, and the average for lower-level needs tends to be higher than for higher-level needs. Is that true for you? What do your five scores say about the need satisfaction in your job? Which needs are less filled for you? How would that affect your choice of a new job? In developed countries, lower needs are often taken for granted, and work motivation is based on the opportunity to meet higher needs. Compare your scores to those of another student. How does that person’s array of five scores differ from yours? Ask questions about the student’s job to help explain the difference in scores. Reread the questions. Which questions would you say are about the motivators in Herzberg’s two-factor theory? Which questions are about hygiene factors? Calculate the average points for the motivator questions and the average points for the hygiene factor questions. What do you interpret from your scores on these two factors compared to the five levels of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy? Source: These questions are taken from Social Indicators Research 55 (2001), pp. 241–302, “A New Measure of Quality of Work Life (QWL) based on Need Satisfaction and Spillover Theories,” M. Joseph Sirgy, David Efraty, Phillip Siegel and Dong-Jin Lee. Copyright © and reprinted with kind permission of Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Leader’s Self-Insight 8.2 Your Approach to Motivating Others Instructions: Think about situations in which you were in a formal or informal leadership role in a group or organization. Imagine using your personal approach as a leader, and answer the following questions. Indicate whether each item is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I ask the other person what rewards they value for high performance. 2. I find out if the person has the ability to do what needs to be done. 3. I explain exactly what needs to be done for the person I’m trying to motivate. 4. Before giving somebody a reward, I find out what would appeal to that person. 5. I negotiate what people will receive if they accomplish the goal. 6. I make sure people have the ability to achieve performance targets. 7. I give special recognition when others’ work is very good. 8. I only reward people if their performance is up to standard. 9. I use a variety of rewards to reinforce exceptional performance. 10. I generously praise people who perform well. 11. I promptly commend others when they do a better-than-average job. 12. I publicly compliment others when they do outstanding work.
Scoring and Interpretation These questions represent two related aspects of motivation theory. For the aspect of expectancy theory, sum the points for Mostly True to questions 1–6. For the aspect of reinforcement theory, sum the points for Mostly True for questions 7–12. The scores for my approach to motivation are: • My use of expectancy theory: • My use of reinforcement theory: These two scores represent how you see yourself applying the motivational concepts of expectancy and reinforcement in your own leadership style. Four or more points on expectancy theory means you motivate people by managing expectations. You understand how a person’s effort leads to performance and make sure that high performance leads to valued rewards. Four or more points for reinforcement theory means that you attempt to modify people’s behavior in a positive direction with frequent and prompt positive reinforcement. New managers often learn to use reinforcements first, and as they gain more experience they are able to apply expectancy theory. Exchange information about your scores with other students to understand how your application of these two motivation theories compares to other students. Remember, leaders are expected to master the use of these two motivation theories. If you didn’t receive an average score or higher, you can consciously do more with expectations and reinforcement when you are in a leadership position. Sources: These questions are based on D. Whetten and K. Cameron, Developing Management Skills, 5th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002), pp. 302–303; and P. M. Podsakoff, S. B. Mackenzie, R. H. Moorman, and R. Fetter, “Transformational Leader Behaviors and Their Effects on Followers’ Trust in Leader, Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors,” Leadership Quarterly 1, no. 2 (1990), pp. 107–142.
Leader’s Self-Insight 8.3 Are You Engaged? Instructions: Think about one of your favorite college courses that you enjoyed and in which you performed well. Answer the questions below for that favorite course. Then respond to the items in Part B below for a course you did not enjoy and for which you probably performed poorly. Respond to the items in both Part A and Part B by indicating whether each item is Mostly True or Mostly False for you. Mostly False Mostly True Part A (for a favorite course) 1. I made sure to study on a regular basis. 2. I put forth a lot of effort. 3. I found ways to make the course material relevant to my life. 4. I found ways to make the course interesting to me. 5. I raised my hand in class. 6. I had fun in class. 7. I participated actively in small group discussions. 8. I helped fellow students. Part B (for a least-favorite course) 1. I made sure to study on a regular basis. 2. I put forth a lot of effort. 3. I found ways to make the course material relevant to my life. 4. I found ways to make the course interesting to me. 5. I raised my hand in class. 6. I had fun in class. 7. I participated actively in small group discussions.
Mostly False Mostly True 8. I helped fellow students. Scoring and Interpretation For Part A give yourself 1 point for each Mostly True answer and zero points for each Mostly False. For Part B give yourself 1 point for each Mostly True and zero points for each Mostly False. Write your scores below: • Part A score: • Part B score: The term “employee engagement” is very popular in the corporate world. Engagement means that people are highly involved in and express themselves through their work, going well beyond the minimum effort required to do their jobs. Engagement typically has a positive relationship with both personal satisfaction and performance. If this relationship was true for your classes, your score for your favorite course should be substantially higher than the score for your least favorite course. The challenge for you as a leader is to learn to engage subordinates in the same way your instructor in your favorite class was able to engage you. Teaching is similar to leading. What techniques did your instructors use to engage students? Which techniques can you use to engage people when you become a leader? Source: These questions are based on Mitchell M. Handelsman, William L. Briggs, Nora Sullivan, and Annette Towler, “A Measure of College Student Course Engagement,” The Journal of Educational Research 98 (January–February 2005), pp. 184–191.
Leader’s Self-Insight 8.4 (Online-Only) The Design of Your Job Think of a specific job (current or previous) you have held. Please answer the following questions about those work activities. Respond to each item below, indicating whether it is Mostly False or Mostly True for your job activities. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I did a number of different tasks using a wide variety of skills. 2. I got to use a number of complex skills on this job. 3. I did a complete task from start to finish, the result of which was clearly visible. 4. I made a significant contribution to the final product (or service). 5. What I did affected the well-being of other people in very important ways. 6. My job made an important contribution to company success. 7. I had complete responsibility for deciding how and when my work was to be done. 8. My job gave me great freedom in doing the work. 9. The work itself provided me with opportunities to understand how
well I was doing. 10. Supervisors or coworkers gave me much feedback on how well I was doing the job. Scoring and Interpretation Compute the number of Mostly True responses for the answers that represent each aspect of the Job Characteristics Model, as indicated below, and write your score where indicated: Questions 1–2: Skill variety. Score ____. Questions 3–4: Task identity. Score ____. Questions 5–6: Task significance. Score ____. Questions 7–8: Autonomy. Score ____. Questions 9–12: Feedback. Score ____. These five scores represent how you see the Core Job Dimensions from the Job Characteristics Model, which indicate the quality and motivational impact of your job experience. A typical total score for overall motivation is 4-6, and a high total score would be 8-10, suggesting a highly motivating and satisfying job.. A low total score would be 0-2, suggesting a narrow, boring and repetitious job. In addition, your scores (0-2) for each of the five elements indicate what was present or missing from the motivational design of your job. Which of the five elements contributed most to your job satisfaction? Which elements do you think are important enough to affect your choice of a new job? Compare your scores to those of another student. How does that person’s array of five scores differ from yours? Ask questions about the student’s job to help explain the difference in scores.
Source: These questions were adapted from J. Richard Hackman and Greg R.Oldham, Work Redesign (Reading: MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980).
Leader’s Self-Insight 8.5 Are You Empowered? Think of a job—either a current or previous job—that was important to you, and then answer the following questions with respect to the managers above you in that job. Indicate whether each item is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. In general, my supervisor/manager: Mostly False Mostly True 1. Gave me the support I needed to do my job well. _______ ______ 2. Gave me the performance information I needed to do my job well. _______ ______ 3. Explained top management’s strategy and vision for the organization. _______ ______ 4. Gave me many responsibilities. _______ ______ 5. Trusted me. _______ ______ 6. Allowed me to set my own goals. _______ ______ 7. Encouraged me to take control of my own work. _______ ______ 8. Used my ideas and suggestions when making decisions. _______ ______ 9. Made me responsible for what I did. _______ ______ 10. Encouraged me to figure out the causes and solutions to problems. _______ ______ Scoring and Interpretation Count one point for each Mostly True answer to obtain your total score and write it here: _______. The questions represent aspects of empowerment that an employee may experience in a job. If your score was 6 or
above, you probably felt empowered in the job for which you answered the questions. If your score was 3 or below, you probably did not feel empowered. Did you feel highly motivated in that job, and was your motivation related to your empowerment? What factors explained the level of empowerment you felt? Was empowerment mostly based on your supervisor’s leadership style? The culture of the organization? Compare your score with another student. Each of you take a turn describing the job and the level of empowerment you experienced. Do you want a job in which you are fully empowered? Why or why not? Sources: These questions were adapted from Bradley L. Kirkman and Benson Rosen, “Beyond Self-Management: Antecedents and Consequences of Team Empowerment,” Academy of Management Journal 42, no. 1 (February 1999), pp. 58–74; and Gretchen M. Spreitzer, “Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Dimensions, Measurements, and Validation,” Academy of Management Journal 38, no. 5 (October 1995), pp. 1442–1465.
Leader’s Self-Insight 9.1 Am I Networked? Instructions: Think about your current life as an employee or as a student. Indicate whether each of the following items is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I learn early on about changes going on in the organization that might affect me or my job. 2. I have a clear belief about the positive value of active networking. 3. I am good at staying in touch with others. 4. I network as much to help other people solve problems as to help myself. 5. I am fascinated by other people and what they do. 6. I frequently use lunches to meet and network with new people. 7. I regularly participate in charitable causes. 8. I maintain a list of friends and colleagues to whom I send holiday cards. 9. I build relationships with people of different gender, race, and nationality than myself. 10. I maintain contact with people from previous organizations and school groups. 11. I actively give information to subordinates, peers, and my boss. 12. I know and talk with peers in other organizations. Scoring and Interpretation Add the number of Mostly True answers for your score: . A score of 9 or above indicates that you are excellent at networking and can be a networking leader. A score of 3 or below would suggest that you need to focus more on building networks, perhaps work in a slow-moving occupation or organization, or not put yourself in a position of leadership. A score of 4–8 would be about average. Networking is the active process of building and managing productive relationships. Networking builds social, work, and career relationships that facilitate mutual understanding and mutual benefit. Leaders accomplish much of their work through networks rather than formal hierarchies. Source: The ideas for this self-insight questionnaire were drawn primarily from Wayne E. Baker, Networking Smart: How to Build Relationships for Personal and Organizational Success (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994).
Leader’s Self-Insight 9.2 Listening and Asking Questions Instructions: Think about how you communicate during a typical day at school or work. Respond to the statements below based on whether they are Mostly False or Mostly True for you. There are no right or wrong answers so answer honestly. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I am extremely attentive to what others say. 2. I deliberately show people that I am listening to them. 3. I really enjoy listening very carefully to people. 4. My mind does not wander when someone is talking. 5. I often restate what the person said and ask if I got it right. 6. I usually think about a response while a person is still talking. 7. I often ask people to clarify what they mean. 8. I ask questions in every conversation. 9. I am genuinely curious in conversations about what other people think. 10. During a conversation, I frequently probe for deeper information. 11. I inquire about others’ points of view on topics. 12. I don’t hesitate to ask what may appear to be dumb questions. Scoring and Interpretation Compute two scores from your answers and insert them below. For your listening score, sum 1 point for each Mostly True answer for items 1–5 and for a Mostly False answer to item 6. For your asking questions score, sum 1 point for each Mostly True answer to items 7–11. Insert your two scores below. Listening score . Asking Questions score . Your first score reflects your listening habits. Managers face many distractions, which makes it hard to pay attention when someone is speaking. Listening attentively can prevent many communication mistakes. Your second score reflects your habit of inquiry, which means asking questions to learn more about something or to confirm your understanding. Asking questions is an important part of an effective leader’s communication repertoire, as described in the text. Scores of 5–6 reflect excellent communication habits. Scores of 0–2 suggest that you may need to work on your communication practices. Scores of 3–4 imply that you are doing okay but have room for improvement. Source: Partially based on William B. Snavely and John D. McNeill, “Communicator Style and Social Style: Testing a Theoretical Interface,” Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 14, no. 1 (February 2008), pp. 219–232.
Leader’s Self-Insight 9.3 Do You Speak with Candor? Instructions: Respond to the statements below based on how you speak to others during personal or work conversations. Answer whether each statement is Mostly True or Mostly False for you. There are no right or wrong answers so answer honestly. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I say exactly what I think to people. 2. I never hesitate to hurt people’s feelings by telling the truth. 3. I like to be strictly candid about what I say. 4. I am very straightforward when giving feedback. 5. I present evidence for my opinions. 6. I am an extremely frank communicator. Scoring and Interpretation Give yourself one point for each Mostly True answer and write your score below. Candor Score . Your score reflects the level of candor with which you communicate. Many people have a hard time giving straightforward opinions and frank feedback because they don’t want to hurt a person’s feelings nor do they want people to dislike them. Hence the sharing of honest observations is limited. A score of 5–6 on this scale reflects a habit of candor, which will add to your leadership effectiveness. A score of 3–4 means that you do reasonably well at saying what you think. A score of 0–2 means you may have a hard time speaking straight and you may want to practice to improve your candor. © Cengage Learning
Leader’s Self-Insight 9.4 (Online-Only) Communication Apprehension The following questions are about your feelings toward communication with other people. Indicate whether each item is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. There are no right or wrong answers. Many of the statements are similar to other statements. Do not be concerned about this. Work quickly and just record your first impressions. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I look forward to expressing myself at meetings. 2. I hesitate to express myself in a group. 3. I look forward to an opportunity to speak in public. 4. Although I talk fluently with friends, I am at a loss for words on the platform. 5. I always avoid speaking in public if possible. 6. I feel that I am more fluent when talking to people than most other people are. 7. I like to get involved in group discussions. 8. I dislike using my body and voice expressively. 9. I’m afraid to speak up in a conversation. 10. I would enjoy presenting a speech on a local television show.
Scoring and Interpretation Give yourself 1 point for each Mostly False answer to questions 2, 4, 5, 8, and 9. Give yourself 1 point for each Mostly True answer to questions 1, 3, 6, 7, and 10. Your total points: ___ This personal assessment provides an indication of how much apprehension (fear or anxiety) you feel in a variety of communication settings. Total scores may range from 0 to 10. A score of 3 or less indicates that you are more apprehensive about communication than the average person. A score of 8 or above indicates a low level of communication apprehension. Scores between 4 and 7 indicate average apprehension. Individual questions in this exercise pertain to four common situations—public speaking, meetings, group discussions, and interpersonal conversations. Study the individual questions to see which situations create more apprehension for you. To be an effective communication champion, you should work to overcome communication anxiety. Interpersonal conversations create the least apprehension for most people, followed by group discussions, larger meetings, and then public speaking. Compare your scores with another student. What aspect of communication creates the most apprehension for you? How do you plan to reduce your communication apprehension? Source: Adapted from J. C. McCroskey, “Validity of the PRCA as an Index of Oral Communication Apprehension,” Communication Monographs 45 (1978), pp. 192–203. Used with permission.
Leader’s Self-Insight 9.5 (Online-Only) Listening Self-Inventory Go through the following questions, answering No or Yes next to each question. Mark each as truthfully as you can in light of your behavior in the last few meetings or social gatherings you attended. No Yes 1. I frequently attempt to listen to several conversations at the same time. 2. I like people to give me the facts and then let me make my own interpretation. 3. I sometimes pretend to pay attention to people. 4. I pay attention to nonverbal communications. 5. I usually know what another person is going to say before he or she says it. 6. I usually respond immediately when someone has finished talking. 7. I evaluate what is being said while it is being said. 8. I usually formulate a response while the other person is still talking. 9. I notice the speaker’s “delivery” style, which may distract me from the content. 10. I often ask people to clarify what they have
No Yes said rather than guess at the meaning. 11. I make a concerted effort to understand other people’s points of view. 12. People feel that I have understood their point of view even when we disagree. Scoring and Interpretation The correct answers according to communication theory are as follows: No for questions 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Yes for questions 4, 10, 11, and 12. If you missed only two or three questions, you strongly approve of your own listening habits and you are on the right track to becoming an effective listener in your role as a leader. If you missed four or five questions, you have uncovered some doubts about your listening effectiveness, and your knowledge of how to listen has some gaps. If you missed six or more questions, you probably are not satisfied with the way you listen, and your followers and coworkers might feel that you are not paying attention when they speak. Work on improving your active listening skills.
Leader’s Self-Insight 10.1 Individual or Team? Instructions: Respond to the statements below with your preferences for working on your job or school assignments. Please answer whether each item below is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I prefer to work on a team rather than do tasks individually. 2. Given a choice, I try to work by myself rather than face the hassles of group work. 3. I enjoy the personal interaction when working with others. 4. I prefer to do my own work and let others do theirs. 5. I get more satisfaction from a group victory than an individual victory. 6. Teamwork is not worthwhile when people do not do their share. 7. I feel good when I work with others even when we disagree. 8. I prefer to rely on myself rather than others to do a job or assignment. 9. I find that working as a member of a team increases my ability to perform well. 10. It annoys me to do work as a member of a team. Scoring and Interpretation For odd-numbered items give yourself 1 point for each Mostly True answer and for even-numbered items give yourself 1 point for each Mostly False answer. Total Score . Your score indicates your preference for working as part of a team versus working as an individual. A score of 8–10 suggests a clear preference for working with others on a team. Teams can accomplish tasks far beyond what an individual can do, and working with others can be a major source of satisfaction. A score of 0–3 suggests a clear preference for working alone rather than on a team. On a team you will lose some autonomy and have to rely on others who may be less committed than you. On a team you have to work through other people and you lose some control over work procedures and outcomes. A score of 4–7 suggests you are satisfied either working on a team or alone. How do you think your preference will affect your career choices and your potential role as a leader? © Cengage Learning 2015
Leader’s Self-Insight 10.2 Are You a Contributing Team Member? Instructions: Think about how you have typically behaved and contributed as a member of student or work teams. Respond to the statements below based on how you typically behaved on those teams. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I proposed a clear vision of team purpose. 2. I initiated up-front discussions of team goals and objectives. 3. I suggested corrective actions to improve performance. 4. I helped coordinate team members. 5. I came to meetings well prepared. 6. I followed through on promises and commitments. 7. I was a focused, active listener. 8. I proactively engaged others in problem solving. 9. I gave team members appreciation and support. 10. I praised people for a job well done. Scoring and Interpretation These questions pertain to your contributions as a team member as described in the chapter. These items concern various important ways for a team member to contribute to the success of a team. By comparing your scores on the following scales, you may be able to identify the ways you most contribute to a team. To calculate your scores, give yourself 1 point for each Mostly True answer for the items indicated. 1. Goal Setting: Items 1, 2: 2. Performance Management: Items 3, 4: 3. Preparation: Items 5, 6: 4. Communication for Problem Solving: Items 7, 8: 5. Social Support: Items 9, 10: An effective team must have members who contribute individually. A team must have someone performing each part, but no member is expected to perform all parts. Indeed, if you scored Mostly True on all the questions, you would be playing a leader role on the team. Part A pertains to goal and direction setting, which is often a team leader role. Part B concerns performance management, which is often part of a team leader’s role, but team members also contribute in this way. Part C is about your ability to be interdependent with other team members. Part D pertains to communication and problem solving skills. Part F is about meeting the relationship needs of team members, which is also a team leader role. How do you feel about your
contribution to teams? In what ways do you take the initiative to be an effective member? What might you do to be more effective? © Cengage Learning 2015
Leader’s Self-Insight 10.3 How Do You Handle Team Conflict? Instructions: Think about how you typically handle a dispute or disagreement with a team member, friend, or coworker, and then respond to the statements below based on whether they are Mostly False or Mostly True for you. There are no right or wrong answers, so answer honestly. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I try hard to win my position. 2. I strongly assert my opinion in a disagreement. 3. I raise my voice to get other people to accept my position. 4. I feel that differences are not worth arguing about. 5. I would usually avoid a person who wants to discuss a disagreement. 6. I would rather keep my views to myself than argue. 7. I give in a little if other people do the same. 8. I will split the difference to reach an agreement. 9. I typically give up some points in exchange for others. 10. I don’t want to hurt other people’s feelings. 11. I am quick to agree when someone I am arguing with makes a good point. 12. I try to smooth over disagreements. 13. I suggest a solution that includes the other person’s point of view. 14. I consider the merits of other viewpoints as equal to my own.
Mostly False Mostly True 15. I try to include the other person’s ideas to create an acceptable solution. Scoring and Interpretation Five categories of conflict-handling strategies are measured in this instrument: dominating, avoiding, compromising, accommodating, and collaborating. By comparing your scores on the following five scales, you can identify your preferred or natural conflict-handling strategy by the highest score. To calculate your five scores, give yourself point for each Mostly True answer for the three items indicated. • Dominating: Items 1, 2, 3: • Avoiding: Items 4, 5, 6: • Compromising: Items 7, 8, 9: • Accommodating: Items 10, 11, 12: • Collaborating: Items 13, 14, 15: Briefly review the text material about these five strategies for handling conflict. Do you agree that your highest score represents the style you use the most? Which strategy do you find the most difficult to use? How would your conflict strategy differ if the other person was a family member rather than a team member? Can you think of a situation where a conflict strategy in which you are weak might be more effective? Explain your scores to another student and listen to the explanation for his or her scores. Source: Adapted from “How Do You Handle Conflict?” in Robert E. Quinn et al., Becoming a Master Manager (New York: Wiley, 1990), pp. 221–223.
Leader’s Self-Insight 10.4 (Online-Only) Assess Your Team Leadership Skills Answer the following questions based on what you have done as a team leader, or think you would do, related to the team situations and attitudes described. Check either Mostly False or Mostly True for each question. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I would keep members informed almost daily of information that might affect their work. _______ _______ 2. I love communicating online to work on tasks with team members. _______ _______ 3. Generally, I feel somewhat tense while interacting with team members from different cultures. _______ _______ 4. I nearly always prefer face-to-face communications with team members over e-mail. _______ _______ 5. I enjoy doing things in my own way and in my own time. _______ _______ 6. If a new member were hired, I would expect the entire team to interview the person. _______ _______ 7. I become impatient when working with a team member from another culture. _______ _______ 8. I suggest a specific way each team member can make a contribution to the _______ _______
project. 9. If I were out of the office for a week, most of the important work of the team would get accomplished anyway. _______ _______ 10. Delegation is hard for me when an important task has to be done right. _______ _______ 11. I enjoy working with people with different accents. _______ _______ 12. I am confident about leading team members from different cultures. _______ _______ Scoring and Interpretation The answers for effective team leadership are as follows: Give yourself 1 point for each Mostly True answer to questions 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 11, and 12. Give yourself 1 point for each Mostly False answer to questions 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10. If your score is 9 or higher, you certainly understand the ingredients to be a highly effective team leader. If your score is 3 or lower, you might have an authoritarian approach to leadership, or are not comfortable with culturally diverse team membership or virtual team communications, such as e-mail. Questions 1, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10 pertain to authoritarian versus participative team leadership. Questions 3, 7, 11, and 12 pertain to cultural differences. Questions 2 and 4 pertain to virtual team communications. Which aspects of team leadership reflect your leader strengths? Which reflect your weaknesses? Team leadership requires that the leader learn to share power, information, and responsibility, be inclusive of diverse members, and be comfortable with electronic communications. Source: Adapted from “What Style of Leader Are You or Would You Be?” in Andrew J. DuBrin, Leadership: Research Findings, Practice, and Skills, 3rd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), pp. 126–127; and James W. Neuliep and James C. McCroskey, “The Development of Intercultural and Interethnic Communication Apprehension Scales,” Communication Research Reports, 14, no. 2 (1997), pp. 145–156.
Leader’s Self-Insight 11.1 Values Balancing Instructions: For each of the following pairs of values, select the one that is most descriptive of you. Even if both qualities describe you, you must choose one. 1. Analytical; Compassionate 2. Collaborative; Decisive 3. Competitive; Sociable 4. Loyal; Ambitious 5. Resourceful; Adaptable 6. Sensitive to others; Independent 7. Self-reliant; Uniting 8. Helpful; Persistent 9. Risk-taker; Contented 10. Interested; Knowledgeable 11. Responsible; Encouraging 12. Tactful; Driven 13. Forceful; Gentle 14. Participating; Achievement oriented 15. Action oriented; Accepting Scoring and Interpretation The words above represent two leadership values: “capacity for collaboration” and “personal initiative.” Personal initiative is represented by the first word in the odd-numbered rows and the second word in the even-numbered rows. Capacity for collaboration is represented by the first word in the even-numbered rows and by the second word in the odd-numbered rows. Add the number of words circled that represent each value and record the number: • Personal Initiative: • Capacity for Collaboration: Capacity for collaboration represents feminine values in our culture, and if you circled more of these items, you may be undervaluing your personal initiative. Personal initiative represents masculine values, and more circled words here may mean you are undervaluing your capacity for collaboration. How balanced are your values? How will you lead someone with values very different from yours? Gender is a trait of diversity. How prevalent in organizations are feminine and masculine values? Read the rest of this chapter to learn which values are associated with successful leadership. Sources: Based on Donald J. Minnick and R. Duane Ireland, “Inside the New Organization: A Blueprint for Surviving Restructuring, Downsizing, Acquisitions and Outsourcing.” Journal of Business Strategy 26 (2005), pp. 18–25; and A. B. Heilbrun, “Measurement of Masculine and Feminine Sex Role Identities as Independent Dimensions.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 44 (1976), pp. 183–190.
Leader’s Self-Insight 11.2 Unconscious Bias Instructions: Think about your typical day-to-day behavior and respond to each item below as Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I prefer to be in work teams with people who think like me. 2. I have avoided talking about culture differences with people I met from different cultures because I didn’t want to say the wrong thing. 3. My mind has jumped to a conclusion without first hearing all sides of a story. 4. The first thing I notice about people is the physical characteristics that make them different from the norm. 5. Before I hire someone, I have a picture in mind of what the person should look like. 6. I typically ignore movies, magazines, and TV programs that are targeted toward groups and values that are different from mine. 7. When someone makes a bigoted remark or joke, I don’t confront them about it. 8. I prefer to not discuss sensitive topics such as race, age, gender, sexuality, or religion at work. 9. There are people I like but would feel uncomfortable inviting to be with my family or close friends. 10. If I were to seek a mentor, I would want someone culturally similar to myself. Scoring and Interpretation Give yourself 1 point for each Mostly True answer. Each item above reflects an element of “passive bias,” which can cause people different from you to feel ignored or disrespected by you. Your Score: . As a leader, your typical day-to-day behavior will send signals about your biases and values. Some personal biases are active and well known to yourself and others. Other biases are more subtle. Unconscious bias occurs when a person is not aware of her or his own bias and has no intent to express bias, but others may experience bias. Unconscious bias may be more insidious than active discrimination because the person would exclude diverse experiences and people from expression and interaction. The ideal score is zero, but few people reach that ideal. If you scored 3 or less, you are making a good attempt to eliminate your passive and unconscious bias. If you scored 8 or more on your answers above, you should take a careful look at how you think and act toward people different from yourself. You should consider ways to become more culturally sensitive. The sooner you learn to actively include diverse views and people, the better leader you will be. Source: Based on Lawrence Otis Graham, Proversity: Getting Past Face Values and Finding the Soul of People (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997).
Leader’s Self-Insight 11.3 Social Values Instructions: Different social groups (work colleagues, family, professional groups, and national, religious, and cultural groups) are all around us. Focus on the group of individuals whom you consider to be your colleagues (e.g., team members, coworkers, classmates). Respond to each of the following statements and indicate its level of importance to your colleague group on the scale of (1) Not at all important to (5) Very important. How Important Is It: Not at All Important Very Important 1. To compromise one’s wishes to act together with your colleagues? 123452. To be loyal to your colleagues? 123453. To follow norms established by your colleagues? 123454. To maintain a stable environment rather than “rock the boat”? 123455. To not break the rules? 123456. To be a specialist or professional rather than a manager? 123457. To have an opportunity for high earnings? 123458. To have an opportunity for advancement to higher-level jobs? 123459. To work with people who cooperate well with one another? 1234510. To have a good working relationship with your leader? 1234511. To have a leader that gives detailed instructions? 1234512. To avoid disagreement with a leader? 12345Scoring and Interpretation There are four subscale scores that measure the four social values described by Hofstede. For the dimension of individualism–collectivism, compute your average score based on responses to questions 1, 2, and 3. For the dimension of uncertainty avoidance, compute your average score based on responses to questions 4, 5, and 6. For the dimension of masculinity–femininity, reverse score your responses to questions 9 and 10 (5 = 1, 4 = 2, 2 = 4, and 1 = 5) and then compute your average score for questions 7, 8, 9, and 10. For the dimension of power distance, compute the average score for questions 11 and 12.
My average social value scores are: • Individualism–collectivism (I–C) . • Uncertainty avoidance (UA) . • Masculinity–femininity (M–F) . • Power distance (PD) . An average score of 4 or above on the I–C scale means that collectivism is a social value in your colleague group, and a score of 2 or below means that the value of individualism dominates. A score of 4 or above on the UA scale means that your group values the absence of ambiguity and uncertainty (high uncertainty avoidance), and a score of 2 or below means that uncertainty and unpredictability are preferred. A score of 4 or above on the M–F scale means that masculinity is a social value in your colleague group, and a score of 2 or below means that the value of femininity dominates. A score of 4 or above on the PD scale means that high power distance, or hierarchical differences, is a social value in your colleague group, and a score of 2 or below means that the value of low power distance, or equality, dominates. Compare your four scores to one another to understand your perception of the different values. On which of the four values would you like to score higher? Lower? Analyze the specific questions on which you scored higher or lower to analyze the pattern of your group’s social values. Show your scores to a student from another country and explain what they mean. How do your social values differ from the social values of the international student? How do these social values differ across the nationalities represented in your class? Sources: Adapted from Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences (London: Sage Publications, 1984); and D. Matsumoto, M. D. Weissman, K. Preston, B. R. Brown, and C. Kupperbausch, “Context-Specific Measurement of Individualism–Collectivism on the Individual Level: The Individualism–Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 28, no. 6 (1997), pp. 743–767.
Leader’s Self-Insight 11.4 (Online-Only) What is Your Cultural Intelligence Instructions: To what extent does each of the following statements characterize your behavior? Please honestly answer each item below as Mostly False or Mostly True for you. [Use two columns to the right of the items labeled Mostly False and Mostly True.] 1. I think about how I’m going to relate to people from a different culture before I meet them. 2. I understand the major religions and how they impact other cultures. 3. I know about the geography, history and cultural leaders of several countries. 4. I regularly discuss world events with family and friends. 5. I seek out opportunities to interact with people from different cultures. 6. I can adapt to living in a different culture with relative ease. 7. I am confident that I can befriend locals in a culture that is unfamiliar to me. 8. I find work on a multicultural team very satisfying. 9. I regularly associate with people from cultural backgrounds different from me. 10. I alter my facial expressions and gestures as needed to facilitate a cross-culture interaction. 11. I am quick to change the way I behave when a cross-culture encounter seems to require it. 12. I am take pleasure in talking with someone whose English is limited. Scoring and Interpretation: The scores for these questions pertain to some aspect of cultural intelligence as described in the chapter. Give yourself 1 point for each item as indicated below: Cognitive CQ, items 1-4. Score = ____. Emotional CQ, items 5-8. Score = ____. Behavioral CQ, items 9-12. Score = ____. Cognitive CQ pertains to the head, emotional CQ pertains to the heart, and behavioral CQ pertains to the body. If you have sufficient international experience and cultural acumen to have scored 3-4 on all three parts, then
consider yourself to have a high CQ. If you scored 1-2 on all three parts, it is time to learn more about other national cultures. Hone your observational skills, take courses, look for international travel opportunities, and learn to pick up on clues about how people from a different country respond to various situations. Compare your scores to other students. If you are not fascinated by diverse people and cultures, how might you develop greater empathy for people who are different from you? Source: Based on P. Christopher Earley and Elaine Mosakowski, “Cultural Intelligence,” Harvard Business Review, October 2004, pp. 139-146; Soon Ang, Lynn Van Dyne, Christine Koh, K. Yee Ng, Klaus J. Templer, Cheryl Tay, and N. Anand Chandrasekar, “Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation, and Task Performance,” Management and Organization Review 3 (2007): 335-371; and David C. Thomas and Kerr Inkson, Cultural Intelligence: People Skills for Global Business (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2004).
Leader’s Self-Insight 12.1 Transformational Leadership Instructions: Think of a situation where someone (boss, coach, teacher, group leader) was in a leadership position over you. Indicate whether each of the following items is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. In general, the leader over me: Mostly False Mostly True 1. Listened carefully to my concerns 2. Showed conviction in his/her values 3. Helped me focus on developing my strengths 4. Was enthusiastic about our mission 5. Provided coaching advice for my development 6. Talked optimistically about the future 7. Encouraged my self-development 8. Fostered a clear understanding of important values and beliefs 9. Provided feedback on how I was doing 10. Inspired us with his/her plans for the future 11. Taught me how to develop my abilities 12. Gained others’ commitment to his/her dream Scoring and Interpretation These questions represent two dimensions of transformational leadership. For the dimension of develops followers into leaders, sum your Mostly True responses to questions 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. For the dimension of inspires followers to go beyond their own self-interest, sum your Mostly True responses for questions 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. The scores for my leader are:
• Develops followers into leaders: • Inspires followers to go beyond their ownself-interest: These two scores represent how you saw your leader on two important aspects of transformational leadership. A score of 5 or above on either dimension is considered high because many leaders do not practice transformational skills in their leadership or group work. A score of 2 or below would be below average. Compare your scores with other students to understand your leader’s practice of transformational leadership. How do you explain your leader’s score? Remember, the important learning from this exercise is about yourself, not your leader. Analyzing your leader is simply a way to understand the transformational leadership concepts. How would you rate on the dimensions of developing followers into leaders or inspiring followers to go beyond their own self-interest? These are difficult skills to master. Answer the 12 questions for yourself as a leader. Analyze your pattern of transformational leadership as revealed in your 12 answers. Sources: These questions are based on B. Bass and B. Avolio, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, 2nd ed. (Mind Garden Inc.) and P.M. Podsakoff, B. MacKenzie, R.H. Moorman, and R. Fetter, “Transformational Leader Behaviors and Their Effects on Followers, Trust in Leader Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors,” Leadership Quarterly 1, No. 2 (1990), pp. 107–142.
Leader’s Self-Insight 12.2 What’s Your Mach? Instructions: Leaders differ in how they view human nature and the tactics they use to get things done through others. Answer the following questions based on how you view others. Think carefully about each question and be honest about what you feel inside. Please answer whether each item below is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. Overall, it is better to be humble and honest than to be successful and dishonest. 2. If you trust someone completely, you are asking for trouble. 3. A leader should take action only when it is morally right. 4. A good way to handle people is to tell them what they like to hear. 5. There is no excuse for telling a white lie to someone. 6. It makes sense to flatter important people. 7. Most people who get ahead as leaders have led very moral lives. 8. It is better to not tell people the real reason you did something unless it benefits you to do so. 9. The vast majority of people are brave, good, and kind. 10. It is hard to get to the top without sometimes cutting corners. Scoring and Interpretation To compute your Mach score, give yourself one point for each Mostly False answer to items 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, and one point for each Mostly True answer to items 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10. These items were drawn from the works of Niccolò Machiavelli, an Italian political philosopher who wrote The Prince in 1513 to describe how a prince can gain the power to protect and control his kingdom. From 8–10 points suggests a high Machiavellian score. From 4–7 points indicates a moderate score, and 0–3 points would indicate a low “Mach” score. Successful political intrigue at the time of Machiavelli was believed to require behaviors that today might be considered manipulative. A high Mach score today does not mean a sinister or vicious person but probably means the person has a cool detachment, sees life as a game, and is not personally engaged with people. Discuss your results with other students, and talk about whether politicians in local or federal government, or top executives in a company like Bear Stearns, discussed in Chapter 6, would likely have a high or a low Mach score. Source: Adapted from R. Christie and F. L. Geis, Studies in Machiavellianism (New York: Academic Press, 1970).
Leader’s Self-Insight 12.3 Your Leadership Orientation Instructions: This questionnaire asks you to describe yourself as a leader. For each of the following items, give the number “4” to the phrase that best describes you, “3” to the item that is next best, and on down to “1” for the item that is least like you. 1. My strongest skills are: o a. Analytical skills o b. Interpersonal skills o c. Political skills o d. Flair for drama 2. The best way to describe me is: o a. Technical expert o b. Good listener o c. Skilled negotiator o d. Inspirational leader 3. What has helped me the most to be successful is my ability to: o a. Make good decisions o b. Coach and develop people o c. Build strong alliances and a power base o d. Inspire and excite others 4. What people are most likely to notice about me is my: o a. Attention to detail o b. Concern for people o c. Ability to succeed in the face of conflict and opposition o d. Charisma 5. My most important leadership trait is: o a. Clear, logical thinking o b. Caring and support for others
o c. Toughness and aggressiveness o d. Imagination and creativity 6. I am best described as: o a. An analyst o b. A humanist o c. A politician o d. A visionary Scoring and Interpretation Compute your scores as follows: • Structural = 1a + 2a + 3a + 4a + 5a + 6a = • Human Resource = 1b + 2b + 3b + 4b + 5b + 6b = • Political = 1c + 2c + 3c + 4c + 5c + 6c = • Symbolic = 1d + 2d + 3d + 4d + 5d + 6d = Your answers reveal your preference for four distinct leader orientations or frames of reference. The higher your score, the greater your preference. A low score may mean a blind spot. “Structural” means to view the organization as a machine that operates with efficiency to be successful. “Human Resource” means to view the organization primarily as people and to treat the family well to succeed. “Political” means to view the organization as a competition for resources and the need to build alliances to succeed. “Symbolic” means to view the organization as a system of shared meaning and values and to succeed by shaping the culture. Do you view politics in a positive or negative light? Most new leaders succeed first by using either or both of the structural or people orientations. New leaders often have a blind spot about politics. As managers move up the hierarchy, they learn to be more political or they miss out on key decisions. The symbolic view usually comes last in a leader’s development. Compare your scores to other students and see which orientations are more widely held. Source: Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership, 5e, Bolman. Copyright © 2013 Lee G. Bolman. Reproduced with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Leader’s Self-Insight 12.4 Have You Got Charisma? This short quiz will help you determine whether you have characteristics that are associated with charismatic leaders. Circle the answer that best describes you. 1. I am most comfortable thinking in a. Generalities b. Specifics 2. I worry most about a. Current competitive issues b. Future competitive issues 3. I tend to focus on a. The opportunities I’ve missed b. The opportunities I’ve seized 4. I prefer to a. Promote traditions and procedures that have led to success in the past b. Suggest new and unique ways of doing things 5. I tend to ask a. How can we do this better? b. Why are we doing this? 6. I believe a. There’s always a way to minimize risk b. Some risks are too high 7. I tend to persuade people by using a. Emotion b. Logic 8. I prefer to
a. Honor traditional values and ways of thinking b. Promote unconventional beliefs and values 9. I would prefer to communicate via a. A written report b. A one-page chart 10. I think this quiz is a. Ridiculous b. Fascinating Scoring and Interpretation The following answers are associated with charismatic leadership: 1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. a; 8. b; 9. b; 10. b If you responded in this way to seven or more questions, you have a high charisma quotient and may have the potential to be a charismatic leader. If you answered this way to four or fewer questions, your charisma level is considered low. Do you believe a person can develop charisma? Source: Based on “Have You Got It?” a quiz that appeared in Patricia Sellers, “What Exactly Is Charisma?” Fortune (January 15, 1996), pp. 68–75. The original quiz was devised with the assistance of leadership expert Jay Conger.
Leader’s Self-Insight 13.1 My Personal Vision Instructions: How much do you think about the positive outcomes you want in your future? Do you have a personal vision for your life? Indicate whether each of the following items is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I can describe a compelling image of my future. 2. Life to me seems more exciting than routine. 3. I have created very clear life goals and aims. 4. I feel that my personal existence is very meaningful. 5. In my life, I see a reason for being here. 6. I have discovered a satisfying “calling” in life. 7. I feel that I have a unique life purpose to fulfill. 8. I will know when I have achieved my purpose. 9. I talk to people about my personal vision. 10. I know how to harness my creativity and use my talents. Scoring and Interpretation Add the number of Mostly True answers for your score: . A score of 7 or above indicates that you are in great shape with respect to a personal vision. A score of 3 or below would suggest that you have not given much thought to a vision for your life. A score of 4–6 would be about average. Creating a personal vision is difficult work for most people. It doesn’t happen easily or naturally. A personal vision is just like an organizational vision in that it requires focused thought and effort. Spend some time thinking about a vision for yourself and write it down. Sources: The ideas for this questionnaire were drawn primarily from Chris Rogers, “Are You Deciding on Purpose?” Fast Company (February/March 1998), pp. 114–117; and J. Crumbaugh, “Cross-Validation of a Purpose-in-Life Test Based on Frankl’s Concepts,” Journal of Individual Psychology 24 (1968), pp. 74–81.
Leader’s Self-Insight 13.2 Visionary Leadership Instructions: Think about a situation in which you either assumed or were given a leadership role in a group. Imagine your own behavior as a leader. To what extent do the following statements characterize your leadership? Indicate whether each of the following items is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I have a clear understanding of where we are going. 2. I work to get others committed to our desired future. 3. I initiate discussion with others about the kind of future I would like us to create together. 4. I show others how their interests can be realized by working toward a common vision. 5. I look ahead and forecast what I expect in the future. 6. I make certain that the activities I manage are broken down into manageable chunks. 7. I seek future challenges for the group. 8. I spend time and effort making certain that people adhere to the values and outcomes that have been agreed on. 9. I inspire others with my ideas for the future. 10. I give special recognition when others’ work is consistent with the vision. Scoring and Interpretation The odd-numbered questions pertain to creating a vision for the group. The even-numbered questions pertain to implementing the vision. Calculate your score for each set of questions. Which score is higher? Compare your scores with other students. This questionnaire pertains to two dimensions of visionary leadership. Creating the vision has to do with whether you think about the future, whether you are excited about the future, and whether you engage others in the future. Implementing the vision is about the extent to which you communicate, allocate the work, and provide rewards for activities that achieve the vision. Which of the two dimensions is easier for you? Are your scores consistent with your understanding of your own strengths and weaknesses? What might you do to improve your scores? © Cengage Learning
Leader’s Self-Insight 13.3 Your Strategy Style Instructions: Think about how you handle challenges and issues in your current or a recent job. Then circle “A” or “B” for each of the following items depending on which is generally more descriptive of your behavior. There are no right or wrong answers. Respond to each item as it best describes how you respond to work situations. 1. When keeping records, I tend to a. be very careful about documentation. b. be more haphazard about documentation. 2. If I run a group or a project, I a. have the general idea and let others figure out how to do the tasks. b. try to figure out specific goals, time lines, and expected outcomes. 3. My thinking style could be more accurately described as a. linear thinker, going from A to B to C. b. thinking like a grasshopper, hopping from one idea to another. 4. In my office or home, things are a. here and there in various piles. b. laid out neatly or at least in reasonable order. 5. I take pride in developing a. ways to overcome a barrier to a solution. b. new hypotheses about the underlying cause of a problem. 6. I can best help strategy by making sure there is a. openness to a wide range of assumptions and ideas. b. thoroughness when implementing new ideas. 7. One of my strengths is a. commitment to making things work. b. commitment to a dream for the future. 8. For me to work at my best, it is more important to have a. autonomy.
b. certainty. 9. I work best when a. I plan my work ahead of time. b. I am free to respond to unplanned situations. 10. I am most effective when I emphasize a. inventing original solutions. b. making practical improvements. Scoring and Interpretation For Strategic Innovator style, score one point for each “A” answer circled for questions 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 and for each “B” answer circled for questions 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. For Strategic Adaptor style, score one point for each “B” answer circled for questions 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, and for each “A” answer circled for questions 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. Which of your two scores is higher and by how much? The higher score indicates your Strategy Style. Strategic Innovator and Strategic Adaptor are two important ways leaders bring creativity to strategic management. Leaders with an adaptor style tend to work within the situation as it is given and improve it by making it more efficient and reliable. They succeed by building on what they know is true and proven. Leaders with the innovator style push toward a new paradigm and want to find a new way to do something. Innovators like to explore uncharted territory, seek dramatic breakthroughs, and may have difficulty accepting an ongoing strategy. Both innovator and adaptor styles are essential to strategic management, but with different approaches. The Strategic Adaptor asks, “How can I make this better?” The Strategic Innovator asks, “How can I make this different?” Strategic Innovators often use their skills in the formulation of whole new strategies, and Strategic Adaptors are often associated with strategic improvements and strategy execution. If the difference between the two scores is 2 or less, you have a mid-adaptor/innovator style, and work well in both areas. If the difference is 4–6, you have a moderately strong style and probably work best in the area of your strength. And if the difference is 8–10, you have a strong style and almost certainly would want to work in the area of your strength rather than in the opposite domain. Sources: Adapted from Dorothy Marcic and Joe Seltzer, Organizational Behavior: Experiences and Cases (Cincinnati: South-Western, 1998), pp. 284–287; andWilliam Miller, Innovation Styles (Dallas, TX: Global Creativity Corporation, 1997). The adaptor innovator concepts are from Michael J. Kirton, “Adaptors and Innovators: A Description and Measure,” Journal of Applied Psychology 61, no. 5 (1976), p. 623.
Leader’s Self-Insight 13.4 (Online-Only) Does Goal-Setting Fit Your Leadership Style? An important part of strategic thinking is to set goals. Do you think ahead to set goals and identify ways to accomplish those goals? Answer the following questions as they apply to your work or study habits. Please indicate whether each item is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. [Please provide two columns to the right of the questions with headings of Mostly False and Mostly True.] 1. I have clear, specific goals in several areas of my life. 2. I have a definite outcome in life I want to achieve. 3. I work better without specific deadlines. 4. I set aside time each day or week to plan my work. 5. I have a clear idea of what I want to accomplish during the next week. 6. I am clear about the measures that indicate when I have achieved a goal. 7. It is easy for me to stick to my aims and accomplish my goals. 8. I have formulated goals and priorities for the next two months. 9. I easily give up immediate pleasures while working on long-term goals. 10. I frequently feel good from accomplishing my goals. Scoring and Interpretation: Give yourself one point for each item you marked as Mostly True, except items 3, for which you should give yourself one point for answering Mostly False. Total Score ____. A score of 7 or higher suggests a positive level of goal-setting behavior and good preparation for the role of vision setting for a team or organization. If you scored four or less, you might want to evaluate your goal-setting behavior. An important part of a leader’s job is to think ahead, which includes both visionary thinking and shorter-term goal setting. If you received a low score, don’t despair. Goal setting can be learned. Research indicates that setting clear, specific, and challenging goals in key areas will produce better performance.
Leader’s Self-Insight 14.1 Working in a Responsive Culture Instructions: Think of a specific full-time job you have held. Indicate whether each of the following items is Mostly False or Mostly True according to your perception of the managers above you when you held that job. Mostly False Mostly True 1. Good ideas got serious consideration from management above me 2. Management above me was interested in ideas and suggestions from people at my level in the organization. 3. When suggestions were made to management above me, they received fair evaluation. 4. Management did not expect me to challenge or change the status quo. 5. Management specifically encouraged me to bring about improvements in my workplace. 6. Management above me took action on recommendations made from people at my level. 7. Management rewarded me for correcting problems. 8. Management clearly expected me to improve work unit procedures and practices. 9. I felt free to make recommendations to management above me to change existing practices. 10. Good ideas did not get communicated upward because management above me was not very approachable. Scoring and Interpretation To compute your score: Give yourself one point for each Mostly True answer to questions 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 and for each Mostly False answer to questions 4 and 10. Total points: . A responsive culture is shaped by the values and actions of top and middle executives. When managers actively encourage and welcome change initiatives from below, the organization will be infused with values for responsiveness and change. These questions measure your management’s openness to change. A typical average score for management openness to change is about 4. If your average score was 5 or higher, you worked in an organization that expressed cultural values of responsiveness. If your average score was 3 or below, the culture was probably a resistant one. Thinking back to your job, was the level of management openness to change correct for that organization? Why? Compare your score to that of another student, and take turns describing what it was like working for the managers above you. Do you sense that there is a relationship between job satisfaction and management’s openness to change? What specific manager characteristics and corporate values accounted for the openness (or lack of) in the two jobs? Sources: Based on S. J. Ashford, N. P. Rothbard, S. K. Piderit, and J. E. Dutton, “Out on a Limb: The Role of Context and Impression Management in Issue Selling,” Administrative Science Quarterly 43 (1998), pp. 23–57; and E. W. Morrison and C. C. Phelps, “Taking Charge at Work: Extrarole Efforts to Initiate Workplace Change,” Academy of Management Journal 42 (1999), pp. 403–419.
Leader’s Self-Insight 14.2 Culture Preference Inventory Instructions: The following inventory consists of sets of four responses that relate to typical values or situations facing leaders in organizations. Although each response to a question may appear equally desirable or undesirable, your assignment is to rank the four responses in each row according to your preference. Think of yourself as being in charge of a major department or division in an organization. Rank the responses in each row according to how much you would like each one to be a part of your department. There are no correct or incorrect answers; the scores simply reflect your preferences for different responses. Rank each of the four in each row using the following scale. You must use all four numbers for each set of four responses. • 1. Would not prefer at all • 2. Would prefer on occasion • 4. Would prefer often • 8. Would prefer most of all I II III IV 1. Aggressiveness Cost efficiency Experimentation Fairness 2. Perfection Obedience Risk taking Agreement 3. Pursue goals Solve problems Be flexible Develop people’s careers 4. Apply careful analysis Rely on proven approaches Look for creative approaches Build consensus 5. Initiative Rationality Responsiveness Collaboration 6. Highly capable Productive and accurate Receptive to brainstorming Committed to the team 7. Be the best in our field Have secure jobs Recognition for innovations Equal status 8. Decide and act quickly Follow plans and priorities Refuse to be pressured Provide guidance and support 9. Realistic Systematic Broad and flexible Sensitive to the needs of others 10. Energetic and ambitious Polite and formal Open-minded Agreeable and self-confident 11. Use key facts Use accurate and complete data Use broad coverage of many options Use limited data and personal opinion 12. Competitive Disciplined Imaginative Supportive 13. Challenging assignments Influence over others Achieving creativity Acceptance by the group 14. Best solution Good working environment New approaches or ideas Personal fulfillment Scoring and Interpretation Add the points in each of the four columns—I, II, III, IV. The sum of the point columns should be 210 points. If your sum does not equal 210 points, check your answers and your addition. The scores represent your preference for I, achievement culture; II, consistency culture; III, adaptability culture; and IV, involvement culture. Your personal values are consistent with the culture for which you achieved the highest score, although all four sets of values exist within you just as they exist within an organization. The specific values you exert as a leader may depend on the group situation, particularly the needs of the external environment. Compare your scores with other students and discuss their meaning. Are you pleased with your preferences? Do you think your scores accurately describe your values? Source: Adapted from Alan J. Rowe and Richard O. Mason, Managing with Style: A Guide to Understanding, Assessing, and Improving Decision Making (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987).
Leader’s Self-Insight 14.3 How Spiritual Are You? Instructions: Think about your current life. Indicate whether each of the following items is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I often reflect on the meaning of life. 2. I want to find a community where I can grow spiritually. 3. I have made real personal sacrifices in order to make the world a better place. 4. Sometimes when I look at an ordinary thing I feel that I am seeing it fresh for the first time. 5. I sometimes have unexpected flashes of insight or understanding while relaxing. 6. It is important to me to find meaning and mission in the world. 7. I often feel a strong sense of unity or connection with all the people around me. 8. I have had experiences that made my role in life clear to me. 9. After reflecting on something for a long time, I have learned to trust my feelings rather than logical reasons. 10. I am often transfixed by loveliness in nature. Scoring and Interpretation Spiritual leadership engages people in higher values and missions and tries to create a corporate culture based on love and community rather than fear and separation. Spiritual leadership is not for everyone, but when spiritual ideals guide a leader’s behavior, an excellent culture can be created. Add the number of Mostly True answers for your score: . A score of 7 or above indicates that you are highly spiritual and will likely become a values-based or spiritual leader. A score of 4–6 would suggest that you are spiritually average. A score of 0–3 means that you may be skeptical about developing spiritual awareness. Sources: Based on Kirsi Tirri, Petri Nokelainen, and Martin Ubani, “Conceptual Definition and Empirical Validation of the Spiritual Sensitivity Scale,”Journal of Empirical Theology 19, no. 1 (2006), pp. 37–62; and Jeffrey Kluger, “Is God in Our Genes?” Time (October 25, 2004), pp. 62–72.
Leader’s Self-Insight 14.4 (Online-Only) Personal Ethical Beliefs Cheating is a common problem on college campuses today; 67 percent of students confess that they have cheated at least once. Many pressures cause students to engage in unethical behavior, and these are similar to pressures they will later face in the workplace. Answer the following questions to see how you think and feel about certain student behaviors that could be considered unethical. Circle a number on the scale from 1–5 based on the extent to which you approve of the behavior described, with 5 = Strongly approve and 1 = Strongly disapprove. Please answer based on whether you approve or disapprove of the behavior, not whether you have ever acted in such a way. [[Please put Strongly Disapprove to the left above the 1 and Strongly Approve to the right above the 5]] Strongly Disapprove——-Strongly Approve 1. Receiving a higher grade through the influence of a family or personal connection 1 2 3 4 5 2. Communicating answers to a friend during a test 1 2 3 4 5 3. Using a faked illness as an excuse for missing a test 1 2 3 4 5 4. Visiting a professor’s office frequently to seek help in a course 1 2 3 4 5 5. “Hacking” into the university’s computer system to change your grade 1 2 3 4 5 6. Getting extra credit because the professor likes you 1 2 3 4 5 7. Using formulas programmed into your pocket calculator during an exam 1 2 3 4 5 8. Attending commercial test preparatory courses such as 1 2 3 4 5
those offered by Kaplan 9. Asking a friend to sign you in as attending when you are absent from a large class 1 2 3 4 5 10. Peeking at your neighbor’s exam during a test 1 2 3 4 5 11. Brown-nosing your professor 1 2 3 4 5 12. Overhearing the answers to exam questions when your neighbor whispers to another student 1 2 3 4 5 13. Using a term paper that you purchased or borrowed from someone else 1 2 3 4 5 14. Contributing little to group work and projects but receiving the same credit and grade as other members 1 2 3 4 5 15. Hiring someone or having a friend take a test for you in a very large class 1 2 3 4 5 16. Comparing work on assignments with classmates before turning the work in to the instructor 1 2 3 4 5 17. Receiving favoritism because you are a student athlete or member of a campus organization 1 2 3 4 5 18. Using unauthorized “crib notes” during an exam 1 2 3 4 5 19. Taking advantage of answers you inadvertently saw on another student’s exam 1 2 3 4 5 20. Having access to old exams in a particular course that 1 2 3 4 5
other students do not have access to 21. Receiving information about an exam from someone in an earlier section of the course who has already taken the test 1 2 3 4 5 22. Being allowed to do extra work, which is not assigned to all class members, to improve your grade 1 2 3 4 5 Scoring and Interpretation There are five subscale scores that reflect your attitudes and beliefs about different categories of behavior. For the category of actively benefiting from unethical action, sum your scores for questions 2, 5, 10, 13, 15, and 18 and divide by 6: ___. For the category of passively benefiting from questionable action, sum your scores for questions 1, 6, 11, 14, 17, 20, and 22 and divide by 7:___. For the category of actively benefiting from questionable action, sum your scores for questions 3, 7, 9, and 21 and divide by 4: ___. For the category of acting on an opportunistic situation, sum your scores for questions 12 and 19 and divide by 2: ___. For the category of no harm/no foul (actions perceived to cause no harm to anyone are considered okay), sum your scores for questions 4, 8, and 16 and divide by 3: ___. The higher the score, the more you find that category of behaviors acceptable. When the scale was administered to 291 students in marketing and finance classes at a medium-sized university, the mean scores were as follows: actively benefiting from unethical behavior: 1.50; passively benefiting from questionable action: 2.31; actively benefiting from questionable action: 2.46; acting on an opportunistic situation: 2.55; and no harm/no foul: 4.42. How do your scores compare to these averages? The students in this sample had high approval for the no harm/no foul category. Do you agree that these behaviors are acceptable? Why might some people consider them unethical? If you feel comfortable doing so, compare your scores to another student’s and discuss your beliefs about categories that you strongly disapprove or strongly approve
of. Source: Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas and Hans R. Isakson, “Ethics of Tomorrow’s Business Managers: The Influence of Personal Beliefs and Values, Individual Characteristics, and Situational Factors,” Journal of Education for Business (July 2000), p. 321. Reprinted with permission of the Helen Dwight Reid Educational Foundation. Published by Heldref Publications, 1319 Eighteenth St., NW, Washington, DC 20036-1802. Copyright © 2000.
Leader’s Self-Insight 15.1 Resistance to Change Instructions: Please respond to each item below based on how you handle day-to-day issues in your life. Think carefully in order to be as accurate as possible. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I generally consider changes in my life to be a negative thing. 2. When I am told of a change of plans, I may tense up a bit. 3. Once I have made plans, I am not likely to change them. 4. I often change my mind. 5. Whenever my life fits a stable routine, I look for ways to change it. 6. I feel less stress when things go according to plan. 7. I sometimes avoid making personal changes even when the change would be good for me. 8. My views are very consistent over time. 9. I prefer a routine day to a day full of unexpected surprises. 10. If I were informed of a significant change in my work, I would tighten up. 11. When someone pressures me to change something, I tend to resist it. 12. Once I have come to a conclusion, I stick to it. Scoring and Interpretation Give yourself one point for each Mostly True answer to items 1 to 3 and 6 to 12 above and for each Mostly False to items 4 and 5. Everyone feels some resistance to change but people do differ in their tolerance for frequent change. A higher score of 8 or above on this scale means you probably prefer a predictable and routine life. Frequent or dramatic changes at work may be difficult for you, probably creating feelings of resistance, stress, and tension. If you received a score of 5 or lower, your resistance to change may be low, so you probably find surprises and changes to be somewhat stimulating. Source: Based on Shaul Oreg, “Resistance to Change: Developing an Individual Differences Measure,” Journal of Applied Psychology 88, no. 4 (2003), pp. 680–693. Used with permission.
Leader’s Self-Insight 15.2 Are You a Change Leader? Instructions: Think specifically of your current or a recent full-time job. Please answer the following questions according to your perspective and behaviors in that job. Indicate whether each item is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I often tried to adopt improved procedures for doing my job. 2. I often tried to change how my job was executed in order to be more effective. 3. I often tried to bring about improved procedures for the work unit or department. 4. I often tried to institute new work methods that were more effective for the company. 5. I often tried to change organizational rules or policies that were nonproductive or counterproductive. 6. I often made constructive suggestions for improving how things operate within the organization. 7. I often tried to correct a faulty procedure or practice. 8. I often tried to eliminate redundant or unnecessary procedures. 9. I often tried to implement solutions to pressing organizational problems. 10. I often tried to introduce new structures, technologies, or approaches to improve efficiency. Scoring and Interpretation Please add the number of items for which you marked Mostly True, which is your score: . This instrument measures the extent to which people take charge of change in the workplace. Change leaders are seen as change initiators. A score of 7 or above indicates a strong take-charge attitude toward change. A score of 3 or below indicates an attitude of letting someone else worry about change. Before change leaders can champion large planned change projects via the model in Exhibit 15.2, they often begin by taking charge of change in their workplace area of responsibility. To what extent do you take charge of change in your work or personal life? Compare your score with other students’ scores. How do you compare? Do you see yourself being a change leader? Source: Academy of Management Journal by E. W. Morrison and C. C. Phelps. Copyright 1999 by Academy of Management. Reproduced with permission of Academy of Management in the format Textbook via Copyright Clearance Center.
Leader’s Self-Insight 15.3 Do You Have a Creative Personality? Instructions: In the following list, check each adjective that you believe accurately describes your personality. Be very honest and check all the words that fit your personality. 1. affected 2. capable 3. cautious 4. clever 5. commonplace 6. confident 7. conservative 8. conventional 9. egotistical 10. dissatisfied 11. honest 12. humorous 13. individualistic 14. informal 15. insightful 16. intelligent 17. narrow interests 18. wide interests 19. inventive 20. mannerly 21. original 22. reflective 23. resourceful 24. self-confident 25. sexy 26. snobbish 27. sincere 28. submissive 29. suspicious 30. unconventional Scoring and Interpretation Add one point for checking each of the following words: 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, and 30. Subtract one point for checking each of the following words: 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 17, 20, 27, 28, and 29. The highest possible score is +18 and the lowest possible score is –12. The average score for a set of assessed males on this creativity scale was 3.57, and for females was 4.4. A group of male research scientists and a group of male psychology graduate students both had average scores of 6.0, and male architects received an average score of 5.3. A group of female psychology students had an average score of 3.34. If you received a score above 6.0, your personality would be considered above average in creativity. This adjective checklist was validated by comparing the respondents’ scores to scores on other creativity tests and to creativity assessments of respondents provided by expert judges of creativity. This scale does not provide perfect prediction of creativity, but it is reliable and has moderate validity. Your score probably indicates something about your creative personality compared to other people. To what extent do you think your score reflects your true creativity? Compare your score to others in your class. What is the range of scores among other students? Which adjectives were most important for your score compared to other students? Can you think of types of creativity this test might not measure? How about situations where the creativity reflected on this test might not be very important?
Source: Harrison G. Gough, “A Creative Personality Scale for the Adjective Check List,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37, no. 8 (1979), pp. 1398–1405.
Leader’s Self-Insight 15.4 (Online-Only) How Innovative Are You? Think about your current life. Indicate whether each of the following items is Mostly False or Mostly True for you. Mostly False Mostly True 1. I am always seeking out new ways to do things. ______ ______ 2. I consider myself creative and original in my thinking and behavior. ______ ______ 3. I prefer to be slow to accept a new idea. ______ ______ 4. I rarely trust new gadgets until I see whether they work for people around me. ______ ______ 5. I am usually one of the last people among my peers to adopt something new. ______ ______ 6. I like to feel that the old way of doing things is the best way. ______ ______ 7. In a group or at work I am often skeptical of new ideas. ______ ______ 8. I typically buy new foods, gear, and other innovations before other people. ______ ______ 9. My behavior influences others to try new things. ______ ______ 10. I like to spend time trying out new things. ______ ______ Scoring and Interpretation Innovativeness reflects an awareness of the need to innovate and a positive attitude toward change. Innovativeness is also thought of as the degree to which a person adopts innovations earlier than other people in the peer group. Innovativeness is a positive thing for leaders today because individuals and organizations are faced with a constant need to change.
Add the number of Mostly True answers to items 1, 2, 8, 9, and 10 and the Mostly False answers to items 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 for your score: ___. A score of 8 or above indicates that you are very innovative and likely are one of the first people to adopt changes. A score of 4–7 would suggest that you are average or slightly above average in innovativeness compared to others. A score of 0–3 means that you may prefer the tried and true and hence be slow and skeptical about adopting new ideas or innovations. Source: Based on H. Thomas Hurt, Katherine Joseph, and Chester D. Cook, “Scales for the Measurement of Innovativeness,” Human Communication Research 4, no. 1 (1977), pp. 58–65.

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