Education & Teaching Question

education & teaching project and need the explanation and answer to help me learn.

ASSIGNMENT: This is based on your 5-day lesson plan. (I have uploaded Unit 2 completed assignment with the 5-day lesson plan on it and other information that will be used for this Unit 3 assignment) This is an education course and I am doing this based on one of my 6th grade English class.

3.1. Assessment plan overview
Describe your daily assessment plan by completing the chart provided. (I have uploaded the charts for this assignment that need to be filled in and used for this unit)
-Use a variety of assessments (quizzes, journal prompts, exit tickets, observation checklist, etc.).
-Ensure that each daily assessment reflects mastery criteria.
3.2. Pre-assessment and post-assessment (summative assessment)
Include copies of the pre-assessment and post-assessment (summative) and scoring guides (example: scoring rubric, answer key, etc.). Include any prompts, and/or student directions that may be needed. ***(Information/examples of how mine should look like has been uploaded)
3.3. Daily assessments (formative assessments)
Include evidence of daily assessments (formative assessments) using different methods (examples: quizzes, journal prompts, exit tickets, observation checklists, etc.) and scoring guides (answer key, checklist, rubric). ***(Information/examples of how mine should look like has been uploaded)
3.4. Assessment data
Include criteria for determining mastery or non-mastery on the assessment for each assessment in your data table. (Example: mastery = 75% or higher on the assessment). ***(Information/examples of how mine should look like has been uploaded)
3.5 Communication of assessment results
Discuss a plan for communicating individual assessment expectations to the students.
Discuss a plan for communicating individual assessment results and feedback to students. Include how students will know they are progressing throughout the unit and upon completion of the units. (I teach English, a class of 14, 6th graders). ***I have 3 different uploads that consist of Formative and Summative Assessments Examples, Assessments Strategies, and Strategies for Assessments for Learning. I have also uploaded the grading rubric for this unit assignment. The goal is to score a 3 on each section (3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4 and 3.5). If tells you under the (3) what all is suppose to be in the assignment in order to score a 3 on each section.

I have uploaded everything. I will have to upload my Unit 2 assignment with the Lesson plan on it separately due to max uploads at one time. Please read all of this assignment and the uploads. There should be a total of 6 uploads.
Requirements: 2 or more full pages. All of the information in each section has to clearly and fully answered.
Rubric Detail A rubric lists grading criteria that instructors use to evaluate student work. Your instructor linked arubric to this item and made it available to you. Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’slayout. UnacceptableNeeds Improvement3.1. Assessment Plan OverviewThe teacher candidate (TC)provides an Assessment PlanOverview Table that includesvarying daily assessments withBloomÕs/DOK levels that matchobjectives and includesaccommodations/modi”cationsbased on individual needs ofstudent or contextual factors.CAEP 1.4; INTASC 6; TGR 30 (0.00%)The TC does notinclude anAssessment PlanOverview Table orassessments donot align with thedaily objectives oraccommodations/modi!cations arenot included orare not based onindividual studentneeds orcontextualfactors.1 (6.66666%)The TC provides an AssessmentPlan Overview Table that isincomplete and does notinclude all daily assessmentsthat match daily objectivesAND/ORaccommodations/modi!cationsare not included based onindividual student needs orcontextual factors.Name: Unit 3 – AssessmentDescription: Unit 3 – AssessmentExitGrid ViewList View10/1/23, 2:56 PMPage 1 of 4
3.2. Pre-Assessment andSummative Assessment Theteacher candidate (TC) providesdescriptions of the pre- andpost-assessments, noting whenassessments will beadministered, and criteria usedto establish mastery. CAEP 1.4;INTASC 6; TGR 30 (0.00%)The TC does notdescribe how thepre-assessmentand summativeassessment areadministered, orhow theassessments arealigned with dailyobjectives, or thecriteria used toestablishmastery, or theTC does notinclude copies oftheseassessments andscoring guides(rubrics, answerkeys, etc.),1 (6.66666%)The TC provides incompletedescriptions of how the pre-assessment and summativeassessment are administered,how the assessments arealigned with daily objectives, orthe criteria used to establishmastery. Copies of the pre- andpost-assessments and scoringguides (rubrics, answer keys,etc.) are included.3.3. Daily Assessments(Formative Assessments) Theteacher candidate (TC)0 (0.00%)The TC does notprovide a1 (6.66666%)The TC provides an incompleteor inaccurate description of the10/1/23, 2:56 PMPage 2 of 4
describes the use of multiplemethods and approaches forassessing student learning andprovides a rationale for eachassessment and an explanationof progress monitoring. CAEP1.4; INTASC 6; TGR 3provide adescription of theuse of multiplemethods andapproaches forassessing studentlearning, therationale for eachassessment, orexplanation ofprogressmonitoring. Dailyassessments arenot included.or inaccurate description of theuse of multiple methods andapproaches for assessingstudent learning, the rationalefor each assessment, orexplanation of progressmonitoring. Copies of dailyassessments (include scoringguides if applicable) are not allincluded or do not vary in type.3.4. Assessment Data Theteacher candidate (TC) providesan assessment data table thatdocuments individualperformance on allassessments. Mastery criteriafor each assessment is includedfor all students. CAEP 1.2;INTASC 6; TGR 30 (0.00%)The TC does notprovide anassessment datatable for keepingtrack of studentperformance onall assessments.1 (6.66666%)The TC provides an incompleteor unorganized assessmentdata table for keeping track ofstudent performance on allassessments.10/1/23, 2:56 PMPage 3 of 4
3.5. Communication ofAssessment Results Theteacher candidate (TC)describes a plan forcommunicating assessmentexpectations, results, anddescriptive feedback that istimely and e#ective to allstudents. The plan submittedincludes a method for learnersto monitor their ownprogression through the unit.CAEP 1.2; INTASC 6; TGR 30 (0.00%)The TC does notprovide a plan forcommunicatingassessmentexpectations,results, orfeedback.1 (6.66666%)The TC provides a plan forcommunicating assessmentexpectations, results, andfeedback to all students, butthe plan lacks a method forstudents to monitor their ownprogression through the unit.Name:Unit 3 – AssessmentDescription:Unit 3 – AssessmentExit10/1/23, 2:56 PMPage 4 of 4
Search this siteFormative and Summative AssessmentsHomeStrategic Resources & Digital PublicationsFeedback on Student LearningFormative and SummativeAssessmentsAssessment allows bothinstructor and student tomonitor progress towardsachieving learning objectives,and can be approached in avariety of ways. Formativeassessment refers to tools thatidentify misconceptions,struggles, and learning gapsalong the way and assess how toclose those gaps. It includeseffective tools for helping toshape learning, and can evenbolster studentsÕ abilities to takeNew to Teachingat YaleWriting A SyllabusCourse PlanningManaging theClassroomStrategies forTeachingInstructional ToolsAccessibleRequest anAssessmentConsultationMid-semesterFeedbackEncouragingMetacognitionin theClassroomCreating and10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 1 of 17
ownership of their learningwhen they understand that thegoal is to improve learning, notapply final marks (Trumbull andLash, 2013). It can includestudents assessing themselves,peers, or even the instructor,through writing, quizzes,conversation, and more. Inshort, formative assessmentoccurs throughout a class orcourse, and seeks to improvestudent achievement of learningobjectives through approachesthat can support specific studentneeds (Theal and Franklin,2010, p. 151). In contrast, summativeassessments evaluate studentlearning, knowledge,proficiency, or success at theconclusion of an instructionalperiod, like a unit, course, orprogram. Summativeassessments are almost alwaysformally graded and oftenheavily weighted (though theydo not need to be). Summativeassessment can be used to greatTeachingHow StudentsLearnFeedback onStudent LearningFormativeandSummativeAssessmentsDesigningQualityMultipleChoiceQuestionsCreating andUsing RubricsCreating anAnonymousOnline SurveyBlind GradingGrading atYaleClassroomAssessmentTechniquesUsingRubricsDesigningQualityMultipleChoiceQuestionsBlindGrading2020-2021CourseSupport10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 2 of 17
effect in conjunction andalignment with formativeassessment, and instructors canconsider a variety of ways tocombine these approaches. Examples of Formativeand SummativeAssessmentsExamples of Formative andSummative AssessmentsFormativeSummativeIn-class discussionsInstructor-created examsClicker questionsStandardized testsLow-stakes group workFinal projectsWeekly quizzesFinal essays1-minute reßection writingFeedback onTeachingDiversity andInclusionTeachingResources forDisciplines andProfessionalSchoolsResources at YaleProgramAssessmentTeaching Online atYaleWR InstructorResourcesTeaching withTurnitinÒConsideringTeaching &LearningÓ Notes byDr. NiemiTeaching10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 3 of 17
assignmentsFinal presentationsHomework assignmentsFinal reportsSurveysFinal GradesBoth forms of assessment canvary across several dimensions(Trumbull and Lash, 2013): Informal / formalImmediate / delayedfeedbackEmbedded in lesson plan /stand-aloneSpontaneous / plannedIndividual / groupVerbal / nonverbalOral / writtenGraded / ungradedOpen-ended response /closed/constrained responseTeacher initiated/controlled/ studentinitiated/controlledExcellence at YalePoorvu FamilyFund for AcademicInnovationShowcase10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 4 of 17
Teacher and student(s) /peersProcess-oriented / product-orientedBrief / extendedScaffolded (teachersupported) / independentlyperformed RecommendationsFormative Assessment   Ideally,formative assessment strategiesimprove teaching and learningsimultaneously. Instructors canhelp students grow as learnersby actively encouraging them toself-assess their own skills andknowledge retention, and bygiving clear instructions andfeedback. Seven principles(adapted from Nicol andMacfarlane-Dick, 2007 withadditions) can guide instructorstrategies:Keep clear criteria for whatdeÞnes good performance -Instructors can explaincriteria for A-F graded10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 5 of 17
papers, and encouragestudent discussion andreflection about these criteria(this can be accomplishedthough office hours, rubrics,post-grade peer review, orexam / assignmentwrappers). Instructors mayalso hold class-wideconversations onperformance criteria atstrategic momentsthroughout a term.Encourage studentsÕ self-reßection – Instructors canask students to utilize coursecriteria to evaluate their ownor a peerÕs work, and toshare what kinds of feedbackthey find most valuable. Inaddition, instructors can askstudents to describe thequalities of their best work,either through writing orgroup discussion.Give students detailed,actionable feedback -Instructors can consistently10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 6 of 17
provide specific feedbacktied to predefined criteria,with opportunities to reviseor apply feedback beforefinal submission. Feedbackmay be corrective andforward-looking, rather thanjust evaluative. Examplesinclude comments onmultiple paper drafts,criterion discussions during1-on-1 conferences, andregular online quizzes.Encourage teacher and peerdialogue around learning -Instructors can invitestudents to discuss theformative learning processtogether. This practiceprimarily revolves aroundmid-semester feedback andsmall group feedbacksessions, where studentsreflect on the course andinstructors respond tostudent concerns. Studentscan also identify examples offeedback comments theyfound useful and explain10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 7 of 17
how they helped. Aparticularly useful strategy,instructors can invitestudents to discuss learninggoals and assignmentcriteria, and weave studenthopes into the syllabus.Promote positivemotivational beliefs andself-esteem – Students willbe more motivated andengaged when they areassured that an instructorcares for their development.Instructors can allow forrewrites/resubmissions tosignal that an assignment isdesigned to promotedevelopment of learning.These rewrites might utilizelow-stakes assessments, oreven automated onlinetesting that is anonymous,and (if appropriate) allowsfor unlimited resubmissions.Provide opportunities toclose the gap betweencurrent and desired10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 8 of 17
performance – Related to theabove, instructors canimprove student motivationand engagement by makingvisible any opportunities toclose gaps between currentand desired performance.Examples includeopportunities forresubmission, specific actionpoints for writing or task-based assignments, andsharing study or processstrategies that an instructorwould use in order tosucceed. Collect information whichcan be used to help shapeteaching – Instructors canfeel free to collect usefulinformation from studentsin order to provide targetedfeedback and instruction.Students can identify wherethey are having difficulties,either on an assignment ortest, or in writtensubmissions. This approachalso promotes10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 9 of 17
metacognition, as studentsare asked to think abouttheir own learning. PoorvuCenter staff can also performa classroom observation orconduct a small groupfeedback session that canprovide instructors withpotential student struggles. Instructors can find a variety ofother formative assessmenttechniques through Angelo andCross (1993), ClassroomAssessment Techniques (list oftechniques available here).Summative Assessment  Because summative assessmentsare usually higher-stakes thanformative assessments, it isespecially important to ensurethat the assessment aligns withthe goals and expected outcomesof the instruction.  Use a Rubric or Table ofSpeciÞcations – Instructorscan use a rubric to lay outexpected performance10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 10 of 17
criteria for a range of grades.Rubrics will describe whatan ideal assignment lookslike, and ÒsummarizeÓexpected performance at thebeginning of term,providing students with atrajectory and sense ofcompletion. Design Clear, EffectiveQuestions – If designingessay questions, instructorscan ensure that questionsmeet criteria while allowingstudents freedom to expresstheir knowledge creativelyand in ways that honor howthey digested, constructed,or mastered meaning.Instructors can read aboutways to design effectivemultiple choice questions.Assess Comprehensiveness -Effective summativeassessments provide anopportunity for students toconsider the totality of acourseÕs content, making10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 11 of 17
broad connections,demonstrating synthesizedskills, and exploring deeperconcepts that drive or founda courseÕs ideas and content. Make Parameters Clear -When approaching a finalassessment, instructors canensure that parameters arewell defined (length ofassessment, depth ofresponse, time and date,grading standards);knowledge assessed relatesclearly to content covered incourse; and students withdisabilities are providedrequired space and support.Consider Blind Grading -Instructors may wish toknow whose work theygrade, in order to providefeedback that speaks to astudentÕs term-longtrajectory. If instructors wishto provide truly unbiasedsummative assessment, theycan also consider a variety of10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 12 of 17
blind grading techniques.Considerations forOnline AssessmentsEffectively implementingassessments in an onlineteaching environment can beparticularly challenging. ThePoorvu Center sharesthese recommendations.ReferencesNicol, D.J. and Macfarlane-Dick,D. (2006) Formative assessmentand self‐regulated learning: amodel and seven principles ofgood feedback practice. Studiesin Higher Education 31(2): 2-19.Theall, M. and Franklin J.L.(2010). Assessing TeachingPractices and Effectiveness forFormative Purposes. In: AGuide to Faculty Development.KJ Gillespie and DL Robertson(Eds). Jossey Bass: SanFrancisco, CA.Trumbull, E., & Lash, A. (2013).10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 13 of 17
Understanding formativeassessment: Insights fromlearning theory andmeasurement theory. SanFrancisco: WestEd. Considerations for OnlineAssessmentsYOU MAY BE INTERESTED INReserve a RoomThe Poorvu Center for Teachingand Learning partners withdepartments and groups on-campusthroughout the year to share itsConsultations, Observations,and ServicesThe Poorvu Center for Teachingand Learning routinely supportsmembers of the Yale communitywith individual instructional10/1/23, 3:00 PMPage 14 of 17
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What are assessment for learningstrategies?Assessment for Learning is a process ofgathering information about students’knowledge, skills and understanding in order toinform teaching. It can be used as an ongoingpart of the curriculum or it may take place atCLASSROOM PRACTICEStrategies ForAssessment For LearningJuly 20, 2021Strategies for Assessment for Learning: All theresearch and techniques you need for making AFLhappen in the classroom.Course EnquiryJOINMembershipShopFeaturesResources10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 1 of 24
key stages such as end-of-year exams. Thepurpose of AfL is not just to test what youknow but also to help teachers plan theirlessons so that they are more effective.The term ‘assessment for learning’ was Jrstcoined by Professor David Coleman who wrotehis seminal book Assessment For Learning: AFramework for Understanding published in1995. He deJned AfL as follows:”Assessment for learning is any activity whichseeks to gather evidence on how well pupilshave mastered speciJc aspects of subjectmatter.”In this way, AfL has been described as “ameans of assessing student achievement”.However, there is no single deJnition of AfLbecause each school will use differentmethods depending upon its own needs andresources. In addition, some schools chooseto combine AfL with other forms ofassessment such as formative assessments,summative examinations and portfolio work.Why do we assess?Dylan William: Wh…10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 2 of 24
Assessment is an integral part of the teaching process. It allows us to explore anyimprovements in learning outcomes that needto be addressed. This knowledge of studentachievement can then be feedback into our teaching practice and inform us of how to moveour students forward.Without detailed checks for understanding, ourinstructional practice remains blind.Classroom teachers should always be seekingout an accurate picture of the current understanding of the learners. Whether the educator isusing whole-class questioning or examiningprogress through exercise books, theseinsights will prove invaluable for makingimprovements in learning outcomes.There are many reasons why schools shouldassess learners’ progress regularly throughoutthe year. These include:• To ensure all children achieve high standards• To provide feedback to parents/carers• To identify areas where improvement is needed• To monitor attainment against nationaltargets• To demonstrate effectiveness of teaching• To improve teacher practice• To support continuous professional development10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 3 of 24
• To promote good citizenship• To encourage self re[ectionAssessment for learning strategies10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 4 of 24
How do assessment for learningstrategies work?AfL takes two main approaches – directobservation and questioning. Direct observation is the most common form of assessment,but it can be time consuming to carry out in aclassroom setting. Questioning provides analternative method that allows teachers toassess students’ knowledge more quickly thanthey would with direct observation alone.Manyof our members schools have been using the block building methodology as formative assessment strategies.This type of assessment digs deeper than justquestioning. As children build what they know,they reveal their true understanding of thelesson content. Similar to using concept maps,the mental models reveal their complexstructure of knowledge or schema. What arequestions used for?Questions provide information about whatlearners know and understand. They allow usto see if our pupils have grasped key conceptsand skills. Questions help us identify areaswhere there may be gaps between their currentunderstanding and expected standards. Thishelps us plan future lessons so that we coverall aspects of the curriculum effectively. It alsogives us insight into whether our pupils needextra support when tackling new topics.10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 5 of 24
If you are interested in developing open-endedquestions as an effective feedback tool, youmight be interested in looking at the universal thinking framework. As well as outliningessential actions involved in learning, theframework also provides essential questionsrelated to different types of student learning.These are designed to dig deeper than multiplechoice questions and can form the backboneof a really effective assessment tool.Assessment for learnin10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 6 of 24
Asking questions as an assessmentfor learning strategyYou should always try to get answers to anyquestion posed during class. However, asking questions after every lesson isn’t practicalbecause it’s too disruptive to the [ow ofinstruction. Instead, you can ask a few keyquestions at the end of each unit or chapterand then use them as assessments in yourJnal exam.The following are some examples of goodquestions that could be asked:* What did I learn about this topic?ng strategies and outcomes10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 7 of 24
* How does this relate to other topics we’vestudied?* Why do I need to know this information?* Is there anything else I didn’t understand?How do assessment for learningstrategies improve learner outcomes?Assessment is a key component of anyeducational system. It helps to identify thestrengths and weaknesses in learners, whichcan be used as feedback to improve theirperformance. Assessment also provides anopportunity for students to demonstrate whatthey have learnt through various means suchas written assignments or practicaldemonstrations. However, it has beenobserved that there are certain limitations withtraditional forms of assessments. Forexample, many teachers Jnd them timeconsuming and diacult to administer.In addition, some students may not performwell on these tests due to lack of preparationor anxiety about being tested. This leads topoor student engagement and low motivationlevels. Therefore, we need to look at new waysof assessing our learners so that we can getmore accurate information from them. Oneway of doing this would be by usingtechnology-based methods. The use of digital10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 8 of 24
tools allows us to collect data quickly andeaciently without having to rely on humanjudgment.These technologies include computer basedtesting, online quizzes, video recording, etc.They provide opportunities for educators toassess how much knowledge learnerspossess before they start teaching them.Embedding these strategies in your approachto teaching will help you achieve better results.The mental modelling strategy using the building blocks enables teachers to assess thelevels of understanding in an engaging activity.This approach to deep thinking helps studentsto develop conceptual understanding andstrengthens the learning process.Assessment for le10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 9 of 24
 Getting started with assessment forlearning strategiesAssessment for learning strategies should notbe a one-way process. As well as revealingwhat students know to the teacher they alsooffer the perfect opportunity foAssessment forlearning strategies should not be a one-wayprocess. As well as revealing what studentsknow to the teacher they also offer the perfectopportunity to address a misconception check.This feedback loop provides us the educatorwith helpful insights that can be used to moveearning as a feedback loop10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 10 of 24
the student closer to the learning objectives.The following sections describe different typesof assessment for learning tasks that could beuseful for developing academic writing skills.They include: 1) multiple choice questions; 2)short answer questions; 3) essay-type questions; 4) peer review exercises; 5) self-assessments. Daily assessment strategies include MultipleChoice Questions. An MCQ is an open endedquestion where there are several possibleanswers. Students must select only oneresponse from among four or Jve options.This type of formative assessment strategyprovide teachers with valuable informationabout how their students understandconcepts. Teachers may use these dailyassessment strategies to determine ifstudents have mastered content areas byasking them to identify which concept bestdescribes the topic being taught. For example,when teaching vocabulary, teachers might askstudents to choose between synonyms,antonyms, homophones, and polysemes.In addition, teachers often use MCQs toassess whether students have learned keyterms related to speciJc topics such asscience, history, math, etc. When using thistype of task it is important to make sure thatall items on the test are relevant to your coursematerial. If you do not want to give studentspractice at answering questions outside of10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 11 of 24
class then you will need to create new onesspeciJcally for testing purposes. It isrecommended that you write out each itembefore giving it to students so that you canensure that they fully comprehend its meaning.You can Jnd many examples of MCQs onlineincluding those created by Khan Academy.Short Answer Questions Short answerquestions require students to respond to aprompt with either a single word or phrase.There are two main advantages to using thisform of questioning. First, because studentscannot guess wrong, they tend to think morecarefully about their responses than in otherforms of assessment. Second, since studentsare required to explain why they chose certainwords or phrases, they learn to expressthemselves clearly.However, like any form of assessment, shortanswer questions can be misused. Someinstructors use them simply to see who hasmemorized the most facts. Others use them togauge students’ ability to synthesizeknowledge into coherent explanations. Toavoid misuse, it’s essential to teach studentshow to constructively analyze written work.  Whichever daily assessment strategy youchoose to use it’s important to make itengaging for your class. A good summativeassessment should be fun and where possible,have a game-like quality. 10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 12 of 24
Using feedback effectivelyClassroom feedback is a very important partof the teaching process. It can be used to helpstudents understand their strengths andweaknesses, as well as provide them withinformation about how they are doing in class.Feedback also helps teachers identify areaswhere instruction needs improvement or revision.Task-focused feedback provides speciJcsuggestions for improving studentperformance on assignments, tests, projects,etc., while formative assessment focusesmore directly on what students know and don’tknow at any given time. In this chapter we willdiscuss ways that you can use classroomfeedback to improve your teaching practice.The following sections describe different typesof feedback:* Classroom feedback forms* Student response systems* Peer reviewWriters Block Expl…10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 13 of 24
* Self-assessment tools* Formative assessments* Summative evaluationsFormative and summitted assessm10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 14 of 24
Understanding different types of taskfocused feedbackFeedback has been deJned by many sourcesas “the act of providing an evaluation ofsomeone’s work”. The term may referspeciJcally to written comments from otherswho have observed the person performingsome task; it may include verbal commentsmade during discussions or meetings; or itmay simply mean giving a grade to a paper ortest score. Regardless of its source, feedbackshould always be positive. If negative,corrective action must follow immediately sothat the situation does not continue todeteriorate.There are several reasons why feedback isnecessary. First, if people do not receivefeedback when they make mistakes, then theycannot learn from those errors. Second,without feedback, there would be no way toevaluate whether individuals were meetingexpectations. Third, feedback allows us to seeour own progress over time. Fourth, feedbackenables us to compare ourselves against otherpeople. Finally, feedback gives us insight intoments10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 15 of 24
how effective our methods are working.There are two basic kinds of feedback:summative and formative. Evaluative feedbacktells us something about the quality of aproduct or service. For example, after readinga book, I might give myself a rating based onmy overall impression of the text. This type ofevaluative feedback is called summativebecause it summarizes all aspects of theexperience. On the other hand, formativefeedback indicates only one aspect of theexperience for instance, the level of understanding demonstrated by a particular groupmember. Such feedback is usually providedverbally rather than through writing.10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 16 of 24
Summative Feedback as anassessment for learning strategyA summary evaluation is often referred to as aJnal exam or report card. It includes grades,scores, percentages, rankings, and/or ratings.These results indicate whether the individualmet his or her goals or exceeded them. Theytell us nothing about the process used to reachthese conclusions.However, summative evaluation is useful forcomparing groups of learners within a singlecourse or across courses. An importantdistinction between summative and formativeDownload the FormativeAssessment PosterEnter ↵ PressStart10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 17 of 24
evaluation is that the former involvesevaluating outcomes whereas the latterevaluates processes.  Using assessment for learningstrategies for making improvementsto learner outcomesAssessment for learning strategies involvesstudents becoming more active participants intheir own education. It is a process of self-directed, student-centered and collaborativeinquiry that focuses on the development ofcritical thinking skills through problem solvingactivities. In a recent study by NFER study, theyexamined whether or not there weredifferences between two groups of learnerswho participated in an AFL program at oneuniversity compared with another group oflearners from a different institution.A total of 576 learners completedquestionnaires before and after participating inthe course. Results indicated signiJcantincreases in all four areas measured by thequestionnaire: knowledge about the subjectmatter; conJdence in understanding conceptsrelated to the subject matter; ability to applywhat they have learned; and interest inpursuing further studies in the area.This research provides evidence supportingthe use of AFL as a teaching strategy withinhigher education institutions as well as10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 18 of 24
schools. The Jndings also suggest that it canbe used effectively across disciplines andlevels of academic achievement. The purposeof the paper was to examine how teachers’perceptions of classroom managementpractices in[uence teacher effectiveness. Datacollected from three separate samples ofprimary school teachers revealed thatperceived effective practice had positive relationships with both job satisfaction and professional commitment.Embracing technology to enhanceassessment for learningTechnology has revolutionized the teachingprocess by providing teachers with varioustools to enhance learning outcomes. Usingtechnology to enhance assessment forlearning is a good opportunity for teachers topromote student learning outcomes.By incorporating technology into theirassessment process, teachers can use thefeedback loop to provide detailed feedback tostudents. Feedback is a critical form offeedback that provides students with thenecessary information to improve theirlearning. Using technology allows teachers toprovide descriptive feedback that answersstudents’ questions and provides them withevidence of their learning.For example, teachers can use mini10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 19 of 24
whiteboards or polling apps to assess studentlearning and provide immediate feedback.These tools can be used to assess studentunderstanding of concepts, answer examquestions, and provide a form of feedback thatsupports the learning process.Technology allows for creativity inassessment, which can help students engagein the assessment process, rather than viewingit as a separate task.Overall, using technology to enhanceassessment for learning can be an effectiveway for teachers to promote student learningoutcomes. By providing students with detailedfeedback and utilizing creative forms ofassessment, teachers can support students intheir learning journey and provide them withthe tools necessary to succeed.Evidencing10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 20 of 24
What learning theory is AFL basedupon?AFL improves learner outcomes by providing a framework for the design of instruction andassessment. Learning theories are used toguide instructional decisions, such as howmuch time should be spent on each topic in aneducational program or what type of questionswill best assess student knowledge.Learning theorists have developed models thatdescribe how people learn. These models helpeducators understand which aspects of theirteaching need improvement so they can makechanges to improve student performance. Themost widely known model is Bloom’s taxonomy, which was Jrst published in 1956.  If you are interested in learning more aboutresearch and practice please do subscribe toour weekly newsletter.Learning10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 21 of 24
Classroom PracticeStep 1/6YourfreeresourceEnhance outcomes across yourschoolDownload an overview of our classroom toolkit.Download10/1/23, 3:01 PMPage 22 of 24
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