Digital research

i would like to answer these 5 Questions in 5 paragraphs , name your references after every single paragraph without using ChatGPT or any AI programs . you will find it attached as word file
Requirements: I would like to write each article in a correct academic manner
Research and explain what an initialization vector is.

Research and describe the difference between a salt value and a pepper value as it relates to cryptography. Provide a high-level example of how these would be implemented.

14. What does the term nonrepudiation mean?
15. Does hashing provide nonrepudiation? If so, how? If not, why not?
16. Research and explain one way that hashing is utilized for email integrity/digital signatures.

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