statistics question and need the explanation and answer to help me learn.
Using the statistics and demographics provided, calculate the following:
The incidence morbidity rate for diabetes? _______
The prevalence rate for Diabetes? __________
The CFR for diabetes? ____________
The Mortality rate for diabetes? __________
Proportionate Mortality Rate for Murders. _________
The Infant Death rate.
Write a short summary (no more than 2-4 paragraphs) defining Direct and Indirect rate adjustments and their relevance in computing (SMR) standardized morbidity or mortality ratio. Explain the importance of calculating these rates for a given population and how the data they provide is used to promote public health.
The summary part of the assignment should be in APA format. Grammar, spelling, and quality will influence your grade.
Demographics needed for the Week 2 Written Assignment
Small Town, USA
Average Population 50,000
Infant Deaths 150
New Diabetic Cases 210
All Diabetic Cases 420
Diabetic Deaths 60
Calculating Ratios, Proportion, and Rates
Epidemiologists measure the frequency of disease with specific tools. The health of a population or rural communities can only be decided by the analysis and interpretation of compiled data. This information includes rates of illness (morbidity), disability, death rates (mortality), and the availability of health services.
Disease frequency is determined by making a count of affected people, but researchers need to know the size of the population from which the number of affected people was taken. This information provides a denominator (the bottom number of a fraction) that can be used to calculate disease frequencies in more than one group of people. Calculations of ration, proportions, and frequency rates are primarily used.
Ratio – compares one thing to another. One condition or one occurrence of disease such as the ratio of individuals in a control group compared to those given a placebo, or comparing males with prostate cancer to healthy men. The formula is usually expressed by X:Y or A:B where the letter represents one data point compared to the other data point.
Example: If A = 10 B= 20 The ration is 10:20
Proportion – measures or quantifies occurrences of deaths, births, disease and illnesses, etc. that take place in a population and is generally expressed as a percentage. For example. If you wanted to determine the proportion of female births in a given population you gather the data and set the equation up like this:
Female births X 100 6,000 X 100 = 60%
All births 10,000
Rate – is the most important tool epidemiologists use to quantify diseases because it includes the time frame involved. The rate is a special measure of how often things like disease occurs in a population over a given time period. When determining the rate, it is paramount that the data gathered is accurate. A simple formula for calculating rate you may be familiar with is r = d/t. The rate is not expressed exclusively as a percentage and represents a measurement of how frequently something occurs in a specific population over a particular time frame.
Example: Calculate the number of new cases of Shigella in 2019 per 1,000”
Number of Shigella outbreaks in 2019 x 1,000
Total population at risk for Shigella in 2019
Calculating Morbidity and Mortality Rates,
Morbidity rates measure the occurrence of disease and involves when it happened (incidence), how long it occurred in a population (period prevalence), and the prevalence rates.
Incidence is defined as the number of new events of a disease that happen in a population over a given time that are at risk for contracting the disease. It is measuring people at risk and easily obtained with accurate data. It is a direct measure of the risk.
Assuming the population of Eagle Sky is 5,000 you can calculate the incident rate of the spread of rabies by gathering an accurate count of new cases over a
given time period. Let’s assume there were 50 new cases of rabies in 2018
Example: Number of New Cases of Rabies in Eagle Sky in 2018 X 1,000.
Total population of Eagle Sky
50 divided by 5,000 X 1,000 = 10 new cases per 1,000 population
During pandemics and epidemics, the incidence rate for morbidity is important and calculated a bit differently and known universally as the attack rate. The way to calculate the rate is the same, but the information used is different. The attack rate is calculated by dividing the total population at risk (involved) into the number of new cases reported during the epidemic or pandemic and then multiplied by 1,000.
Example: Let’s say 200 people attended a company picnic for Volunteer Fireman
where meat pies were served and everyone who attended ate one. Later that afternoon, 190 people complained of vomiting, diarrhea and
stomach pain. Now calculate the attack rate.
190 x 100 = 95 cases of illness per 100 people attending were affected
Prevalence rate – is the number of people who actually have a disease during a specific time period. New and old cases are used in the computations.
Point prevalence rate measure the proportion of a specific population who contracted a particular disease at a particular time. It represents all persons with a specific disease that is known. It is calculated by doing cross-sectional studies and used primarily when planning expansion of clinics or resources or when monitoring a chronic disease in a population such as sexual transmitted diseases or AIDS.
PPR = Individuals with a particular illness at one point in time
Point in time x 1,000
Let’s say you wanted to determine the Point Prevalence Rate (PPR) or percentage of the prevalence of diabetes in a small kindergarten school in Florida.There are 200 students. Of the student base 100 were found to have diabetes.
100 X 100 = 50 diabetic patients per 100 students or 50% of the school
200 children attending
Mortality calculations involve the use of rates and ratios to measure death events in a population. It takes into account the total population used as the denominator in its calculations which is really only an average and not a completely accurate number since it is impossible to determine in most geographic areas. Average populations are always used in public health because people are constantly dying and being born or leaving an area.
To calculate the average population, you add the population count to the population count at the beginning of the study and divide by two.
There are common death rates most often used in public health, and all are calculated primarily the same way over a specific time period, and the most common include:
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
Sex specific Death Rate
Case Fatality Rate (CFR)
Age specific Death Rate
Neonatal death rate
Infant death rate
Under 5 death rate
Maternal Mortality Rate
The Crude Death Rate gives a measurement of the percentages of the populations that die each year based on a population of 1,000 people and is used to indicate the risk of death to a specific population or community.
The CRD is calculated by dividing the total number of reported deaths by the average population at a specific time – multiplied by 1,000. These numbers are gathered from different sources.
Age Specific death Rate represents the number of deaths of a specific age group, such a suicide rate among teenagers ages 14-18. It includes measurements of the death rates of newborns, infants, and children under the age of five years in most cases, but it can be any age bracket.
Specific Time Period X 1,000
Average Population of Specific Age Group
Sex Specific Death (SSMR) rates represent the number of deaths of a particular biological sex. They do not take into consideration gender preference, only biological indications at death.
Specific Time Period X 1,000
Average Population of Sex Group
These mortality rates are calculated much the same way. For example, lets calculate the CDR for males in a population of 4,000 divided into 4,500 females and 3,500 males from Small County, South America in 2021. In that specific year 300 people died. 200 females and 100 males.
CDR for males would equal – 100
3,500 x 1,000 = 28
This represents the fact that out of every 1,000 males in a population in a town in South Africa, 28 men died in 2021. You might ask why this would be important, but if you calculated these rates for several years in a row, you might be able to determine the probability of the male death rates in a specific location and resources could be tapped to aid in prevention.
The Proportionate Death (Mortality) Rate is actually a ratio that equals the number of deaths from a particular cause over a given time frame. It determines how many people in a population die from diseases like heart failure, diabetes, Cancer, or killed in car wreck, murdered, and even specifically how as from gunshot wounds, stabbing, etc.
When epidemiologist report that the PMR in 2020 for heart attack was 20% it means that out of a number of cases reported over a particular time frame, twenty people died.
The PMR is calculated by dividing the total deaths over a given time period into the number of deaths from a particular cause such as heart attack, over that same time period, and then multiplied by 100 for the percentage.
The CFR or Case Fatality Rate measures the likelihood of death of persons who have been diagnosed with a specific disease or better known as the killing power of an illness or disease, during a particular time frame.
Example: if 1,000 patients were diagnosed with diverticulitis in 2021,
and during that time 100 of them died, it would indicate that
10% of people diagnosed with diverticulitis are likely to die.
100 deaths divided by 1,000 diagnosed cases = .10 x100 = 10%
A neonate is defined as an infant or newborn that dies before they are more than 28 days old. Death usually occurs due to lact of prenatal care, prematurity of the infant, It is usually
The Neonatal death rate is also concerned with a specific time frame and is calculated by dividing the number of neonates that died during a specific time, by the number of live births during that same time frame and then multiplied by 1,000 usually.
Example: out of 5,000 live births in 2006, 200 neonates died. The mortality rate
for neonates that year would be calculated:
200 neonates X 1000 = 40 babies died out of every 1,000 births
5,000 live births
Infant and the Under Five death rates are also calculated in this manner. They, along with the neonatal death rate is a measure of a community’s health. These rates are high among populations where pregnant women do not receive adequate prenatal care or resources are not available to ensure healthy foods and care after the child is born. In some developing countries the death rate is as high as 97 out of every 1,000 live births.
Infant death rate represents a child that dies before they reach the age of 1 year. The Under five rate, is calculated based on the death of children before they are five.
Maternal Death or Mortality Rate is a measure of the standard of care or condition of pregnant women including prior to delivery, after the birth of their child, and after care. Women still die in childbirth today from complications of pregnancy, eclampsia, drugs, injury, or other less known causes such as inadequate care from unlicensed mid-wives, or young mothers who give birth at home, or alone on the streets.
Mortality Rates need to be adjusted from time to time because factors such as age in a population does not give a good representation of the health of the population since elderly people are more likely to die before the younger people in a population. Two methods are used to adjust rates and they are direct and indirect,
Direct rate adjusting applies specific rates to an age or sex group like males, females to a standard population. This method may be used if actual death rates in an age group are known. The age adjusted rate for a population is the total expected number of deaths divided by the total estimated population times 100, 000.
Indirect rate adjustments are used when the death rates of a group within a population are not known and is used more extensively. It does not require any knowledge of the number of occurrences or incidences of mortality from the age-specific group. Tables are used for data to calculate both direct and indirect rates.