bibliography …ADDING THE ARTICLES..WITH THE URL AND DOI NEEDED

english discussion question and need the explanation and answer to help me learn.

This week, you will submit an annotated bibliography for two (2) of your sources for the final project paper. Both sources should be scholarly (peer-reviewed) Read the instructions for upcoming assignments so you will have a good idea of sources you might need.
Each source (listed in alphabetical order) should have a complete Works Cited or References entry for the citation style you are using, as well as an annotation, which should be a paragraph or two summarizing and evaluating the article. Information about the author’s credentials and publisher’s credibility may be included. Value of the sources to the final project paper should be part of the annotation. (Summaries/evaluations under one hundred words each will be considered under-developed.)
Write in third person only. It’s a good idea to include a signal phrase, direct quote or paraphrase, and a parenthetical citation within each summary.
To format your Works Cited or References entries, you may use the library cite button discussed in the week four Lessons. Include the article’s web link (the https address—not just the doi) at the end of your Works Cited entry. Just copy and paste it from your web browser, if it is not already included. Examples are shown in the attached Template (which you will download) and Sample (which is attached to show you an example of what a good submission looks like).
Submit your assignment as a Word document attached to the assignment link so it can be automatically processed through Turnitin. Use the template provided. You can save the template with a title like this: Your Name_Annotated Bib.
TITLE FOR MY PAPER
PAPER 1
https://web-s-ebscohost-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/ehos…
Mascarenhas, O. A. J., & Higby, M. A. (1993). Peer, Parent, and Media Influences in Teen Apparel Shopping. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21(1), 53–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070393211007
PAPER 2
https://www.proquest.com/docview/1891317941?accoun…
Duffett, R. G. (2017). Influence of social media marketing communications on young consumers’ attitudes. Young Consumers, 18(1), 19–39. https://doi.org/10.1108/YC-07-2016-00622
Requirements: FULL

Copyright of Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science is the property of Springer Science & BusinessMedia B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without thecopyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles forindividual use.
InßuenceofsocialmediamarketingcommunicationsonyoungconsumersÕattitudesRodneyGraemeDuffettRodneyGraemeDuffettisSeniorLecturerattheDepartmentofMarketing,FacultyofBusiness,CapePeninsulaUniversityofTechnology,CapeTown,SouthAfrica.AbstractPurposeÐThispaperaimstoexaminetheinßuenceofinteractivesocialmediamarketingcommunicationsonteenagersÕcognitive,affectiveandbehavioralattitudecomponentsinSouthAfrica.Thestudyalsoconsiderstheimpactofanumberofadditionalfactorssuchasusage(access,lengthofusage,log-onfrequency,log-ondurationandproÞleupdateincidence)anddemographic(gender,ageandpopulationgroup)variablesonyoungconsumersÕattitudestowardsocialmediamarketingcommunications.Design/methodology/approachÐAsurveywasusedviathreeself-administeredquestionnaires,whichweredistributedtoover13,000learnersintheagerangeof13-18years(GenerationZcohort)atcollegesandhighschoolsinSouthAfrica.Ageneralizedlinearmodelwasusedforstatisticaldataanalysis.FindingsÐThestudyascertainedthatsocialmediamarketingcommunicationshadapositiveoneachattitudecomponentamongadolescents,butonadecliningscale,whichcorrelatestothepurchasefunnel.Theresultsalsorevealedthatteenagerswhousedsocialmediaforlongtimeperiods;updatedtheirproÞlesfrequentlyandwerefromtheColoredandBlackpopulationgroups,displayedthemostfavorableattitudinalresponsestosocialmediamarketingcommunications.Researchlimitations/implicationsÐSocialmediawascollectivelyanalyzedanddidnotconsiderthenumberofdifferentsocialmediatypes,whichcouldbeexaminedindividually.ThisinvestigationonlyconsideredtheGenerationZcohort,butothercohortstoattitudestowardsocialmediamarketingcommunicationscouldalsobeassessed.PracticalimplicationsÐCompaniesandtheirbrandsshouldconsiderusingand/oradaptingtheirstrategiesbasedonthedecliningimpactofsocialmediamarketingcommunicationsonthehierarchicalattitudestagesamongyoungconsumersandthedivergentinßuenceonusageanddemographicvariableswhentargetingthelucrativeandtechnologicallyadvanced,butcapricious,GenerationZconsumers.Originality/valueÐThisresearchestablishedthatsocialmediamarketingcommunicationshadafavorableinßuenceoncognitive,affectiveandbehavioralattitudecomponentsamongyoungconsumers,butonadecliningscale,whichisincongruencewiththepurchasefunnelmodel.Thisinvestigationalsomakesanimportantcontributiontoattitudinalresearchindevelopingcountries,wherethereisalackofresearchinsocialmediamarketingcommunications.KeywordsSouthAfrica,Attitudes,GenerationZ,SocialmediamarketingcommunicationsPapertypeResearchpaperThephenomenalgrowthofinteractivedigitaltechnologyhasimpactedalmosteveryaspectofyoungconsumers’dailylivesoverthepasttwodecades.Thisnewinteractiverevolutionhasresultedfromnoteworthyachievementsintheinformationsuperhighway(Arens,2004),knownastheInternet,whichrecentlyexceeded3bnusers(InternetWorldStats,2015).SocialnetworkingbecamemuchquickerwiththearrivaloftheInternetandtheglobalizationthataccompaniedit,andthisgaverisetoinnovativeinformationcommunicationtechnology(ICT)channels,whichweredubbedsocialmedia©CapePeninsulaUniversityofTechnology.PublishedbyEmeraldPublishingLimited.ThisarticleispublishedundertheCreativeCommonsAttribution(CCBY4.0)licence.Anyonemayreproduce,distribute,translateandcreatederivativeworksofthisarticle(forbothcommercial&non-commercialpurposes),subjecttofullattributiontotheoriginalpublicationandauthors.Thefulltermsofthislicencemaybeseenathttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcodeReceived27July2016Revised29September2016Accepted16November2016DOI10.1108/YC-07-2016-00622VOL.18NO.12017,pp.19-39,EmeraldPublishingLimited,ISSN1747-3616YOUNGCONSUMERSPAGE19
and/orWeb2.0.Butsocialnetworkingisnotanewphenomenon,asithasalwaysbeenwithinhumannaturetocommunicateandsocializewithoneanother,aswellastorecommend,commentandalerteachotheraboutcommercialcontent(Uitz,2012).Hence,amajorityofyoungInternetusersalsomakeuseofoneormoreformsofonlinesocialmedia(Barenblatt,2015).Socialmediahasbecomeanindispensablepartoflifeinthemodern-dayera,especiallyamongyoungconsumers(teenagersandadolescents)knownasGenerationZ(alsoreferredtoasiGeneration,PluralsandGenerationNext)whohaveenthusiasticallyadoptedthisnewonlineICTplatform(McCrindleandWolfinger,2009;MacKenzieetal.,2012;JamesandLevin,2015).Socialmedia,suchasFacebook,Twitter,LinkedIn,YouTube,WhatsApp,Instagram,Tumblr,Pinterest,WeChatandGoogle,permityounguserstocreatepersonalizedonlinepages,communicateandinteractwithfriends,aswellasexchangecontentthattheyhavecreatedthemselves(user-generatedcontent)and/orinformationfromotherbrand-relatedsources(Matthee,2011;Statista,2015).Socialbehaviorandhowconsumersthinkhaveconventionallybeendisseminatedbymediasuchastelevision,radio,newspapersandmagazines,butinthetwenty-firstcentury,socialmediahasbeguntoreplacetraditionalmedia’senduringandinfluentialroleonyoungconsumers.Thischangeinbehaviorrepresentsbothanopportunityandachallengefromanorganization’sviewpoint(Uitz,2012;Nhlapo,2015).MarketersprogressivelydependmoreonsocialandmobileICTchannelstomarketandpromotetheirbrandsamidtheyouth.Additionally,thenotionofimplementingcontentthatisbothentertainingandcurrentwouldenticeyoungconsumerstointeractanddisseminatetheinformationtotheirfriends.Thissignificantfeature,whichisalsoreferredtoasword-of-mouth(WOM),canbeconsideredasthefutureofsocialmediamarketingcommunications(Yaakopetal.,2013).OkazakiandTaylor(2013)reportthattherewasapaucityofdefinitivetheoreticalviewpointsintermsofsocialmediaasamarketingcommunicationtoolbecauseittooktimeandwasacumulativeprocesstodeveloptheoreticalfoundations.Boltonetal.(2013)agreethatfewstudiesassessedwhetherthereweredifferenceswithinaseparatecohort.Additionally,therearefewempiricalinternationalinquiriesthatconsiderGenerationZ.Furthermore,GenerationZ’sattitudestowardsocialmediamarketingcommunicationshavenotbeensuitablymeasuredinSouthAfrica.SouthAfricahasbecomeoneoftheleadingregionaleconomicforcesinAfrica,andjoinedBrazil,Russia,IndiaandChina(BRICS)in2010.BRICSrepresentnewlyindustrializedcountrieswithlargedevelopingeconomiesandwill(anddo)playanimportantroleintheworldeconomy(PetzerandDeMeyer,2013).HoffmanandNovak(2012)proposethatasoundtheoreticalframeworkofsocialmediaisrequiredfororganizationstoimplementprecisemarketingtactics,particularlyregardingusagevariablessuchasmobiledeviceaccess.Petersetal.(2013)suggestthatamoreholisticapproachwasrequiredtoeffectivelyassessmultipleelementsofsocialmediatomakeinformedmarketingcommunicationdecisions.ResearchquestionsHence,thisinquiryaimstonarrowthegapbetweentheoryandpracticeregardingthedifferentattitudecomponentsbyaddressingthefollowingresearchquestions(RQ):RQ1.Whatinfluencedosocialmediamarketingcommunicationshaveonyoungconsumers’cognitive,affectiveandbehavioralattitudecomponents?RQ2.Dousagevariables(access,lengthofusage,log-onfrequency,log-ondurationandprofileupdateincidence)haveanimpactonyoungconsumers’attitudesintermsofsocialmediamarketingcommunications?RQ3.Dodemographicvariables(gender,ageandpopulationgroup)haveaneffectonyoungconsumers’attitudesregardingsocialmediamarketingcommunications?PAGE20YOUNGCONSUMERSVOL.18NO.12017
TheoreticalbackgroundSocialnetworksites(SNS)arestillrelativelynewmarketingcommunicationtools,whichhaveasignificantimpactonthewaythatcompaniescommunicatewithconsumers.Mostsocialmediafacilitatetheuseofonlinemarketingcommunications,whichcouldsimplybedefinedasadvertisingontheInternet,butisnotthesame,asmentionedabove,owingtotheembeddedWeb2.0componentthatpromotesconsumer-generatedcontentasaresultofinformationWOMsharingontheseplatforms(Meyerson,2010).Onlinemarketingcommunication,initssimplestform,referstohyperlinkedgraphicalimagesthataredisplayedonawebsite,and,inrecentyears,mayalsoincludevideo,audioandanumberofotherinnovativetechnologies.Theprimaryobjectivesofonlinemarketingcommunicationusuallyincludecreatingbrandawareness;generatingconsumerdemand;providinginformation;stimulatingtraffic;buildingrelationships;promotingtwo-waycommunication;givingcustomerservice;establishingbrandloyalty;creatingWOM;generatingleadsandincreasingsales(Thomas,2011;Stokes,2013).Severaloftheseobjectivesdenotevariouselementsofattitudecomponents.Theexpansionofdifferentonlinemarketingcommunicationformats,inparticulartheswiftgrowthofsocialnetworkadvertising(SNA),suggeststhatorganizationsshouldbeconcernedabouttheattitudesofsocialmediasubscribers(Cox,2010).Anumberofrecentinternationalstudieshaveconsideredvariousattitudinalresponsestowardsocialmediamarketingcommunications(Gensleretal.,2013;Kumaretal.,2013;Malthouseetal.,2013;Thametal.,2013;Labrecque,2014;LukkaandJames,2014;Liuetal.,2015).However,thesestudiesmainlyusedyoungadults(alsoknownasMillennialsorGenerationY)astheirresearchparticipants,withfewconsideringteenagers.Furthermore,theseenquirespredominantlyoccurredindevelopedeconomiesthathaveaccesstogoodinfrastructure,fastbroadbandInternetspeeds,highaccesslevelsandsoundinformationtechnology.Consequently,theironlineusagecharacteristicsanddifferingculturalinfluencesmayresultinsignificantlydifferentattitudesincomparisontodevelopingcountriessuchasSouthAfrica.SouthAfricaisamulticulturaldemocracythatembracesdiversityandhasbecomeknownasthe“RainbowNation”with11officiallanguages.However,thedeleteriousremnantsofcenturiesofethnicdiscriminationisstillevidentinsociety,economy,cultureandpolitics,andwilltakemanymoredecadestoeradicatethanonly20yearsofdemocracy(FoxandLemon,2000;Luthansetal.,2004;Hermine,2014).Nearly80percentoftheSouthAfrica’spopulation(41mn)areBlack,whichcomprisethefollowingmaingroups:Zulu(28percent),Xhosa(20percent),NorthernSotho(11percent),Tswana(9.7percent),Basotho(9.5percent),Tsonga(5.5percent),Swazi(3.1percent)andVenda(2.9percent).TheBlackmajorityhasthelowestaverageincome,educationandemploymentlevels,andoneinfivelivebelowthebreadline,butamajorityisstillconfidentandoptimisticaboutthefuture.AsizablemiddleclassgrouphasemergedandcontinuestogrowsinceSouthAfricabecameademocracyin1994.TheBlackmiddleclasshasgreaterpurchasingpowerthantheirWhitecounterparts;accesstoprivateschoolingandtopuniversitiesandlucrativeemploymentopportunitiesbecauseofBlackEconomicEmpowerment,EmploymentEquityandotherAffirmativeActionpolicies(Luthansetal.,2004;StatisticsSouthAfrica,2012;PetzerandDeMeyer,2013;Radebe,2013;Shevel,2013;Hermine,2014;DuToit,2015).ThenewBlackmiddleclassisextremelyaspirationalandseeksstatusproductssuchasluxurymotorvehicles,expensiveelectronicsandhouseholdappliances.Blackconsumersareculturallydiverseastheyspeakdifferentlanguagesanddisplaydifferentbeliefsandvalues(PetzerandDeMeyer,2013).Nearly9percentofSouthAfricansareColored(4.62mn),whichisanextremelyraciallydiversegroupcomprisingofamixtureofBantu,Khoisan,European,SoutheastAsianandIndianancestry.ColoredsareslightlybetteroffthanBlackAfricansregardingincome,educationandemploymentlevels,butmanyfeelmarginalizedbecausetheywerenotWhiteenoughduringapartheidandnotBlackenoughafterapartheid(FoxandLemon,2000;Luthansetal.,2004;StatisticsSouthAfrica,2012;Hermine,2014).WhiteSouthAfricansform8.9percentofthepopulationVOL.18NO.12017YOUNGCONSUMERSPAGE21
(4.59mn),butthepercentagecontinuestodeclinebecauseoflowerbirthratesandemigration.TheWhiteminorityhavethehighestaverageincome,educationandemploymentlevelsincomparisontotheotherethnicgroups.Amajorityremainsoptimisticaboutthefutureofcountry,butsomefeelmarginalizedbecauseoftheSouthAfricangovernment’sAffirmativeActionpoliciesmakingitdifficulttofindemployment(Luthansetal.,2004;StatisticsSouthAfrica,2012;Hermine,2014).Asiansand/orIndianscomprise2.5percent(1.29mn)oftheSouthAfricanpopulation.AmajorityareIndianand3,50,000areChinese.TheAsian/IndianWhiteminorityhavethesecondhighestaverageincome,educationandemploymentlevelsincomparisontotheotherethnicgroups(StatisticsSouthAfrica,2012;Hermine,2014).SouthAfricahasayoungpopulation,whichisevidentinmanydevelopingcountries.Two-thirdsareaged34yearsoryounger(34.6mn)andnearly40percent(20.1mn)areaged19yearsoryounger(StatisticsSouthAfrica,2012).GenerationZwasthefirstcohorttohavegrownupinthepost-apartheiderainSouthAfricaand,consequently,thisintegratedmultiracialcohorthasgreateropportunitythanthepreviousgenerations.Thiscohortattendsraciallymixedschoolsandhasgreateraccesstotertiaryeducationandwealthcreationdespitetheenduringsocio-economicandpoliticalconsequencesofapartheid.TheSouthAfricanyouthofthepresent,acrossculturalgroups,arehighlyindependentandambitious;confidentandoptimistic;criticallyconsciousandcanmobilizethemselvesrobustly;forexample,therehavebeenanumberofrecent“#”movementswherestatues,fees,rape[…]mustfall.However,youngSouthAfricanconsumersareextremelyimageconscious,whichhasresultedinconspicuousconsumption,butarenotself-obsessedandcareabouttheirfutureprospects(DuhandStruwig,2015;Tennant,2016).GenerationZwasbornfrom1997onwardandhasbeendubbedas“screenaddicts”or“screenagers”whoonlyknowaworldwithcontinualandinstantaccesstotheInternetandsocialmedia(MacKenzieetal.,2012;WhartonUniversityofPennsylvania,2015;Williams,2015).GenerationZhasmoreinformationavailableattheirfingertipsthananyofthepriorgenerations.Adolescentshavegrownupintheepochofcomputers,theInternet,instantmessaging(WhatsApp,WeChat),mobiledevices(cellphones,personalizeddigitalassistants,smartphones,tablets,iPods,iPads,iPhones),interactiveTV,wireless(Bluetooth),SNS(Facebook,Google,LinkedIn),picturesharing(Instagram,Pinterest,Flickr),micro-blogs(Twitter,Tumblr),videosharing(YouTube,Vine)andmanyotherinteractiveICTplatformsthatenablethemtosocializeonlineandassistthemwiththepurchasedecisionprocess(Stokes,2013).Hence,thiscohort’se-commerceactivitieswillcontinuetoincreasealongwiththeirdiscretionaryincome,therebymakingthemalucrativetargetmarketowingtotheirsheerpurchasingpower.Youngconsumers’spendingpowerhasalreadybeenestimatedat$200bnperannumandhasamassiveinfluenceonhouseholdpurchases(Heller,2015).GenerationZhadFacebookprofilesandTwitteraccountsthemomenttheywereborn,sosocialmediaisasnormalasbreathingistothem(WhartonUniversityofPennsylvania,2015).GenerationZisabletomultitaskowingtotheirbusyeverydaylife;showhighdegreesofcreativity,expressivenessandindividuality;desireimmediacywithoutlongwaitingperiodsforconsumptionandisgenerallycontinuallyconnectedviamobiledevicesandotherinteractiveICTconduits.Theseyoungconsumersdesireeverything,everywhereandinstantaneously.However,youngconsumersareabletoquicklyfilteroutboringandirrelevantmessages,andratherfocustheirattentiononmorecreativebrandmessages.Thisgenerationisbrandsavvyandcanrapidlydiscernunreliablebrands(Bevan-DyeandDondolo,2014;Barenblatt,2015;Benhamou,2015;Williams,2015).Therefore,itisimperativetoacquireamorecompleteunderstandingofthisgeneration’sattitudesinresponsetosocialmarketingcommunications.Foroveracentury,manyadvertisingmodelstoestablishmarketingcommunicationobjectiveshavebeenpostulatedtorepresenttheattitudephasesthatconsumersmightexperiencebeforetheymakeapurchase(Barry,1987).Therehasbeenrigorousdebateregardingtheuseofsingle-component(one-dimensional)andmulticomponentmodelsofPAGE22YOUNGCONSUMERSVOL.18NO.12017
attitudes(BagozziandBurnkrant,1980;Barry,1987;Weilbacher,2001;Barry,2002;MaioandHaddock,2015).However,BagozziandBurnkrant(1980)andBarry(2002)foundthatmulticomponentmodelsarevalid,andseveraladvocatesareinagreementthatthesemodelscanbeusedtoassessadvertising(BarryandHoward,1990;Durvasulaetal.,1993;BrownandStayman,1999;Mehta,2000).Furthermore,thereareamyriadofstudies(Yooetal.,2010,Yang,2012;Gensleretal.,2013;Hamidizadehetal.,2012;Kumaretal.,2013;Loganetal.,2013;Tanetal.,2013;Labrecque,2014;LukkaandJames,2014;BoatengandOkoe,2015;Leungetal.,2015;Liuetal.,2015),whichhaveusedmulticomponentmodelstoassessattitudes,mainlyamongyoungadults,towardsocialmediamarketingcommunicationsandotherdigitalinteractiveICTplatforms.Hence,themulticomponentmodelofattitudeswasadoptedbythisstudy.Consumersmovethroughsuccessiveattitudephases,namelyawarenessofthebrand’sexistence(cognitiveattituderesponse);knowledgeofthebrand’soffers(cognitiveattituderesponse);likingthebrandbyhavingafavorablepredispositiontoit(affectiveattituderesponse);displayingpreferencetowardthebrandinrelationtoothersbyhavingapositiveattitudetoit(affectiveattituderesponse);convictionthatpurchaseofthebrandwouldbesensible(behavioralattituderesponse)andthefinalpurchaseofthebrand(behavioralattituderesponse).Ultimately,eachattitudephaseshouldbereached,butthestagesareessentiallynotequidistantbecauseconsumerscanprogressthoughanumberofstagesconcurrentlyorinadifferentsequence(LavidgeandSteiner,1961).Attitudesarerelativelyenduring,consistentandconstantovertimeand,asdescribedabove,comprisethreecomponents:cognitive;affectiveandbehavioral(Hamidizadehetal.,2012).Attitudestowardadvertising(Aad)isafrequentlypostulatedtheorythatstatespositiveattitudestowardadvertisingresultsinanalogousattitudestowardthebrands,whichinturnhaveafavorableinfluenceonpurchaseintention(MacKenzieetal.,1986;BrunerandKumar,2000).Although,manyothervariableshavebeenfoundtohaveaninfluenceontheAad,suchasmediausage,age,gender,ethnicityandevenmood(MacKenzieandLutz,1989).Furthermore,Aadhasbeenconsideredtobeaneffectivemeasureofadvertisingeffectiveness(Yooetal.,2010).Anumberofrecentinternationalinvestigationshaveexaminedseveralattitudinalresponsestowardvarioustypesofsocialmediamarketingcommunications.Gensleretal.(2013)reportthatconsumershavebecometheoriginatorsofbrandstoriesowingtotheuniquenatureofnetworksofbrandsandconsumersthatareforgedviasocialmediamarketingcommunication,whichhaveresultedinbothpositiveandnegativeattitudes.Kumaretal.(2013)revealthatWOMsocialmediacampaignsleadtoamajorincreaseincognitiveandbehavioralresponsestobrands,ifconsumerswhodisseminatethemarketingcontentexertamajorinfluenceontheirsocialconnections.Malthouseetal.(2013)statethatsocialmediamarketingcommunicationenabledconsumerstoscreencustomerrelationshipmanagement(CRM)messagesandadvertising,aswellasdisseminatefavorableandpositivebrandcommunications.Thametal.(2013)revealthatWOMdistributedviasocialmediawasnotascredibleastraditionalWOM,butsocialmediamarketingcommunicationsprovidedmechanismstoaddressunfavorableWOMthatwasdisseminatedviatraditionalandelectronicmeansintermsoftouristdestinationchoices.LukkaandJames(2014)foundamixedrangeofattitudes,whichwerepositive,negativeorneutraltowardSNAamong465Bangkokuniversitystudentswhowereclassifiedintothreeclustersaccordingly.Murphy(2014)determinedthatsocialmediaresultedinuser-generatedcontentthatinfluencedbehavioralresponses(purchaseintentions)favorablyamong252GenerationYrespondentsinIreland.However,noneoftheseinquiriesconsideredGenerationZand/oralsoweremainlyconductedindevelopedcountries.Therefore,insummary,itisimportanttounderstandhowyoungonlineconsumersperceiveSNAandfactorsthatinfluencetheirattitudesbecausethiswilldeterminesocialmediamarketingcommunicationscontent,andwillassisttoimprovetheeffectivenessofonlineICTstrategies.ThisstudyalsoinvestigatedanumberofusageanddemographicvariablesVOL.18NO.12017YOUNGCONSUMERSPAGE23
thatinfluenceattitudecomponents.Theinvestigationprovidesadditionalinsightregardingwhethersocialmediamarketingcommunicationsisperceivedbyyoungconsumersinthesamewayastraditionaladvertising,fromwhichtheseattitudemodelsweredeveloped,andexpandsthelimitedpoolofknowledgeindevelopingcountriesthatwillbevaluabletobothacademicsandorganizationsalike.MethodologyThisstudywasempirical,wherebylargesamplesofquantifiabledatawerecollectedfromyoungconsumerssothattheresultscanbeevaluatedviastatisticalanalysistotestatheory,whichisexaminedagainstrealitytosolvepracticalresearchproblems(Wright,2006;ZikmundandBabin,2007).Hence,thisinquiryusedsurveydatatogaugetheattitudesofGenerationZtowardsocialmarketingcommunications,whichallowedforclearerdistinctionsfrommoretraditionalapproachesthatwereusedtoeffectivelyreachthisgroup,andelaboratedonprevioustheoriesonthistopic.Thisinquirytargeted13-18-year-oldhighschoolandcollegelearners(GenerationZ)whousedandhaveobservedsocialmediamarketingcommunications.Thestudyusedadoublesamplingmethod,whichcomprisesseveralphasestodrawasample(Birn,2004;Blumbergetal.,2011).Theresearchpopulationisfirstdividedintoseveralgroups;inthisstudytheWesternCapeProvincewasselectedinSouthAfrica.Subsequently,70TechnicalVocationalEducationandTrainingcollegesandhighschoolsandweresystematicallychosenfromtheWesternCapeEducationDepartment’s(WCED)list.BoththeCapePeninsulaUniversityofTechnologyandtheWCEDgrantedethicalclearancebeforethestudycommenced.Thereafter,thecollegesandschoolswerephonedtoobtainpermissiontoperformthesurvey.Nearly200learnersfromeachcollegeandhighschoolwereselectedviasystematicsampling,andwererequestedtoparticipateinthestudyonavoluntarybasis(Gupta,2010;Bhattacherjee,2012).Hence,acomprehensivesamplewasdrawnfromtheWesternCapeinSouthAfrica,whichwasrepresentativeoftheresearchpopulation’sdemographicsintermsofgender,populationgroupandage(StatisticsSouthAfrica,2012).Self-administeredquestionnairesweredistributedtotherespondentstoimmediatelycompletebythemselves,whichallowedformoreaccurateanswers,becauserespondentswereabletorequestassistanceiftheydidnotfullyunderstandanyofthequestions,andcompleteness,becausethefieldworkerwasabletoquicklyscanthequestionnaireonceitwasreturned(DeVosetal.,2011).Threequestionnaires,oneforeachattitudecomponent,didnotasktheGenerationZrespondentstoidentifyorlistanyproductsorbrands,butsolelyfocusedondeterminingtheirattitudestowardsocialmediamarketingcommunications.Thismultiplestudyapproachhasseveraladvantages:itreducedpotentialresponseerrorsbyminimizingtheriskofrespondentsadaptingtheiranswerstoeachattitudephase;itdecreasedrespondentfatigueowingtoashorterquestionnaire;itenabledtheresearcherto“independently”assesseachcomponentofthemulticomponentmodelofattitudes;itreducedthepotentialofambivalencebetweenthethreemulticomponentattitudeelements;itincreasedthesamplesizeowingtohigherresponseratesasaresultofashorterquestionnaireandprovidedafulloverviewofthemulticomponentmodelofattitudes,whichresultedinamorecomprehensiveoverviewandgreaterdepthofinformationthanasingle-attitudecomponent.Theresearchquestionnairesconsistedofthreesections.Thefirstsectiongatheredinformationrelatingtotheyoungrespondents’socialmediausagevariables(predictorfactors)bymeansoffivemultiple-choicequestions.Thenextsectioncomprisedtwoeight-itemconstructstoascertainoneattitudecomponent(cognitive,affectiveorbehavioral).Duffett’s(2015c)scaleswereusedforcognitiveattitudinalconstructs,aswellasDuffett’s(2015a)scalesfortheaffectiveattitudinalresponsesandDuffett’s(2015b)scalesforthebehavioralattitudinalresponses.Thefinalsectionofthequestionnairegathereddatapertainingtotheyoungrespondents’demographicvariables(independentorpredictorfactors)bymeansofthreemultiple-choicequestions.Atotalof35fieldworkers(twocollegesorschoolseach)PAGE24YOUNGCONSUMERSVOL.18NO.12017
collectedthedataonaface-to-facebasisviatheself-administeredquestionnaires,whichresultedinanexcellentresponserate.Inthisway13,462questionnaireswerecompleted,andthedatawascaptured,codedandanalyzedviastatisticalpackageforthesocialsciences(SPSS).ResultsandanalysisTableIprovidesacomprehensiveoverviewoftheGenerationZrespondents’socialmediausageanddemographicvariables.Adolescentsmainlyaccessedsocialmediaviamobiledevices(and/orcomputers),whichrepresented92.3percentoftheresponses.Themassiveuseofmobiledevicesamongyoungconsumersisawell-knowntrendthatissupportedbydiscoursebothlocally(Andrews,2014;Breitenbach,2015;Harding,2015;Jovago,2015)andinternationally(Hardwicketal.,2014;TableISocialmediausageanddemographicvariablesUsagevariablesOverallCognitiveAffectiveBehavioraln(%)n(%)n(%)n(%)AccessMobiledevice7,72657.42,98458.82,32855.72,41457.4PC1,0357.74619.13327.92425.8MobileDevice&PC4,70134.91,63132.11,52036.41,55036.9Lengthofusage1year2,39017.81,10721.872117.256213.42years2,97522.11,10621.893422.393522.23years3,16323.51,07621.299823.91,08925.94years2,36517.682016.273817.780719.25years2,56919.196719.178918.981319.3Log-onfrequencyDaily8,40262.43,12761.62,63963.12,63662.72-4timesaweek2,79320.71,03320.488221.187820.9Onceaweek1,2959.64959.83839.24179.92-4timesamonth5714.22645.21664.01413.4Onceamonth4013.01573.11102.61343.2Log-onduration1h4,92036.51,64532.41,68440.31,59137.82h3,27324.31,20923.892922.21,13527.03h2,42518.01,01420.069216.671917.14h1,2028.956911.23388.12957.05h1,64212.263912.653712.846611.1ProÞleupdateincidenceDaily3,55826.41,30025.61,13727.21,12126.72-4timesaweek2,86721.399419.687821.099523.7Onceaweek2,78320.71,09921.782819.885620.42-4timesamonth1,63612.274214.647911.54159.9Onceamonth2,61819.494118.585820.581919.5DemographicvariablesGenderMale5,85443.52,17942.91,78442.71,89145.0Female7,60856.52,89757.12,39657.32,31555.0Age13-142,45818.266413.188921.390521.515-165,15238.31,79335.31,65339.51,70640.617-185,85243.52,61951.61,63839.21,59537.9PopulationgroupWhite1,86513.954210.762715.069616.5Black4,77735.52,20543.41,57737.799523.7Colored6,30246.82,13042.01,84944.22,32355.2Indian/Asian5183.81993.91273.01924.6VOL.18NO.12017YOUNGCONSUMERSPAGE25
Pescheretal.,2014;KantarMedia,2015;PewResearchCentre,2015).Teenagers’socialmedialengthofusagewasrelativelyevenlyspreadbetweenoneandfiveyears.ThisisarationalresultbecauseyoungeradolescentswouldhavebeenusingSNSforashortertimeframeowingtoagerestrictionsonSNSsuchasFacebook(Facebook,2016).Furthermore,amajorityoftheSouthpopulationiscategorizedaspreviouslydisadvantagedindividuals(PDIs)(Black,ColoredandIndian/Asian)becauseofapartheid,andtherefore,manyPDIGenerationZonlygainaccesstotheInternetandsocialmedialaterinlifeowingtofinancialconstraints(DeLanerolle,2012;Lesame,2013;PetzerandDeMeyer,2013).GenerationZprimarilyloggedontosocialmediadailyorseveraltimesaweek(83.1percent),whichisequivalenttootherglobal(LukkaandJames,2014;Murphy,2014;Benhamou,2015)andlocal(DlodloandDhurup,2013;Wronski,2015)research.MostSouthAfricanteenagersspend1-2h(60.8percent)onsocialmediaperlog-in,butmanylog-insseveraltimesadayviatheubiquitousmobilephones(Azzie,2014),whichwouldincreasethetotaltimespentonSNS(DlodloandDhurup,2013),althoughthisphenomenonwasnotconsideredinthisstudy.AmajorityofyoungconsumersinSouthAfricaupdatetheirsocialmediaprofilesdailyorweekly(68.4percent),withoveraquarterupdatingonadailybasis.Thisusagevariablehasnotbeenassessedinpriorresearch,andhence,thisstudyproducedsomeoriginalfindingsintermsofcross-analysiswiththethreeattitudecomponentsthatareelaborateduponinlatertext.Femaleadolescentsthatusesocialmediawereintheascendancy(56.5percent),whichcorrespondswiththeSouthAfricanpopulation(StatisticsSouthAfrica,2012).TheolderGenerationZmembers(15-18–year-olds)collectivelyaccountedfornearly82percentofsocialmediausers,whichisalogicalresultowingtotheagerestrictionsofcertainsocialmedia(e.g.Facebook)orthelackofInternetaccessintheirearlyteens,whichwasmentionedinpriortext.Thereisalackofresearchwithincohorts,asmandatedbyBoltonetal.(2013);therefore,thisinquiryprovidedsomeuniquefindingsintermsofsocialmediamarketingcommunicationsattitudinalresearch.ThepopulationgroupsessentiallyduplicatedtheculturaldiversityofteenagerswholiveintheWesternCapeinSouthAfrica;therefore,Black(35.5percent)andColored(46.8percent)adolescentsaccountedforamajorityofthesample(StatisticsSouthAfrica,2012).TableIoffersacompletesummaryofusageanddemographicvariablesofyoungconsumerswhousesocialmedia.TableIIrevealsthattheinitialattitudecomponents,suchasawarenessandknowledge,displayhighermeansthatprogressivelydecreaseforeachsequentialattitudinalresponsetowardsocialmediamarketingcommunicationsamidSouthAfricanteenagers,untilculminatingintheeventualpurchase.Thisnotionevidentlymirrorsthepurchasefunnel,whichpostulatesthateachattitudecomponentbecomesincreasinglymoredemandingtoachieve,withthenumberofpotentialconsumersdecreasingastheyprogressdownthefunnel,untilthefinalprimarymarketingcommunicationobjective,namelypurchase(Safko,2010;BelchandBelch,2015).Though,thepurchasefunnelwasdevelopedviatraditionalmediamarketingcommunicationsresearchthatisgenerallyone-waycommunication,conversely,socialmediaisprimarilyinteractiveinnature(MaandLiu,2010).Therefore,thisstudyempiricallysubstantiatesthatinspiteofthehighlevelsofconsumerengagementandTableIISocialmediamarketingcommunicationattitudeconstructsAttitudecomponentsMeanSDCronbachÕspAwareness(cognitive)3.390.7750.8810.000*Knowledge(cognitive)3.350.7420.8450.000*Liking(affective)3.170.6750.8060.000*Preference(affective)3.080.6180.7950.000*Intention-to-purchase(behavioral)2.890.7700.8950.000*Purchase(behavioral)2.830.6130.8110.000*Note:*Wald’schi-squaretestshowedasignificantdifferenceatp0.001PAGE26YOUNGCONSUMERSVOL.18NO.12017
two-waycommunicationofsocialmediaamongGenerationZ;theseinteractiveICTplatformsstilladheretotheprinciplesofcommunicationseffectspyramid.Cronbach’sAlphacoefficientisauniversallyacceptedmeasureofreliabilityandscoresshouldbeabove0.7,whereasscoresover0.8showgoodinternalconsistencylevels(Pallant,2010).Cronbach’sAlphacoefficientshowsthattheeachattitudestagehasanacceptableandgoodinternalconsistencylevel,withscoresrangingfrom0.795to0.895(TableIIandAppendix).ANOVAwasusedtoestablishiftherewasanysignificanceintermsofthedifferentmeans,thoughWald’sChi-squaredistributionstatisticandageneralizedlinearmodelwasusedtoascertainifthereweresignificantdifferencesbetweenthedependent(attitudecomponents)andindependent(usageanddemographicfactors)variables(Maree,2007;Pallant,2010).TableIIindicatesthattherewerestatisticallysignificantoutcomesforeachoftheattitudestagesintermsofsocialmediamarketingcommunicationsamongadolescentsinSouthAfricaatp0.001.Hence,thisstudydemonstratesthatsocialmediamarketingcommunicationsenablesorganizationsandtheirbrandstoreachyoungconsumers,particularlythenotoriousvacillatingGenerationZ.DiscussionSocialmediamarketingcommunications’influenceonyoungconsumers’attitudesSeveralotherinternationalinquirieshaveconsideredvariousaspectsofsocialmediamarketingcommunicationsrelatedtodifferentattitudecomponentsacrossanumberofcohortsandindustries.SchivinskiandDabrowski(2015)discoveredthatbothuser-generatedandorganizationalsocialmediabrandcommunicationspositivelyaffectedawareness(cognitiveresponses).Labrecque’s(2014)inquirydeterminedthatbrandinteractionindifferentsocialmediasettingsresultedinpositivecognitiveattitudinalresponsesamongatotalof380respondentsintheUSAinthreeseparatestudies.Thestudyresultedinpositivecognitiveattitudinalresponsesregardingbrandinteractioninsocialmediasettings.KabadayiandPrice(2014)discloseddifferenttypesofindividualandmasscommunicationinteractiononFacebookandpersonalitytraitsinfluencedaffectiveresponsesintheformoflikingandcommentsamong269MillennialrespondentsintheUSA.Tanetal.(2013)learnedthattherewasapositiveassociationbetweenpurchaseSNAeffectivenessandbehavioralresponses(purchaseintentions)among149Malaysianstudents.Hardwicketal.’s(2014)researchyieldednegativeandpositivebehavioralattitudinalresponsestowardSNAformobilephonepurchasesamong25respondentsintheUnitedKingdom.Liuetal.(2015)examinedfactorsthatinfluencedtheeffectivenessofsocialmediaproductplacement.Theinvestigationestablishedvideoswithsubtleproductplacements,whichresultedinthemostfavorableattitudeandbehavioralresponses,andthattheeffectofsocialmediaproductplacementswascomparabletoothermedia.However,thisstudyshowsthatyoungconsumersshareanalogouspositiveattitudestowardsocialmediamarketingcommunications,withamajorityoftheaforementionedinquiriesinspiteofthefactthattheywerelargelyexecutedinfirst-worldcountriesamongoldergenerationalcohorts.Usagevariables’effectonyoungconsumers’attitudecomponentsSocialmediamarketingcommunicationsresultedinthemostpositivecognitiveandaffectiveattitudinalresponseswhenaccessedviamobiledevicesamidGenerationZ(refertoTableIII).Thisisnotanunexpectedresult,becauseSwanepoel(2015)alsoestablishedthatmobilechannelshadbecomethemostpopularmarketingcommunicationsplatforminAfrica,withover90percenthavingaccesstoamobilenetwork.Harding(2015)disclosedthattheuseofmobiledevicestopurchaseonlineincreasedfrom23percentin2013toover46percentin2014,whereastheuseofcomputersdeclinedfrom94.7percentin2013to63.6percentin2014.ItisclearfromtheabovediscussionthattherapidproliferationofVOL.18NO.12017YOUNGCONSUMERSPAGE27
TableIIIInßuenceofusageanddemographicvariablesonsocialmediamarketingcommunicationsintermsofteenagersÕattitudecomponentphasesIndependentvariablesAwarenessKnowledgeLikingPreferenceIntention-to-purchasePurchaseMSEpMSEpMSEpMSEpMSEpMSEpAccessMobileDevice3.290.0260.000*3.280.0250.000*3.160.0260.000*3.080.0250.000*2.810.0270.7682.770.0220.295PC3.120.039(1&3)-(2)a3.190.038(1&3)-(2)a3.100.041(1)-(3)a2.980.038(1)-(2&3)a2.850.0512.790.042MobileDevice&PC3.350.0273.370.0263.040.0283.010.0262.820.0302.800.025Lengthofusage1year3.140.0310.000*3.160.0300.000*3.080.0340.8172.980.0310.1922.940.0400.000*2.830.0330.002**2years3.240.032(2,4,5)-(1)a3.330.031(2,3,4,5)-(1)a3.100.0323.020.0302.860.035(1)-(4&5)a2.820.029(1&2)-(5)b3years3.220.0313.260.0303.110.0313.040.0292.850.0342.790.0284years3.340.0343.300.0333.110.0343.060.0312.800.037(2&3)-(5)a2.790.0305years3.320.0343.330.0333.090.0343.020.0322.690.0372.710.030Log-onfrequencyDaily3.290.0230.1803.290.0220.4513.130.0230.1833.040.0220.3462.870.0260.1432.820.0220.1072-4timesaweek3.270.0293.300.0293.080.0293.050.0272.900.0332.850.027Onceaweek3.230.0383.250.0373.080.0382.970.0352.820.0412.820.0332-4timesamonth3.310.0493.330.0473.160.0543.030.0502.760.0642.770.053Onceamonth3.160.0633.230.0613.040.0653.020.0612.800.0692.700.056Log-onduration1h3.220.0280.000*3.210.0270.001*2.990.0270.000*2.960.0250.000*2.610.0290.000*2.680.0240.000*2h3.330.030(2&3)-(1)a3.280.029(3)-(1)a3.040.032(3,4,5)-(1)a3.000.029(3&5)-(1)a2.820.033(2,3,4,5)-(1)a2.780.027(2,3,4,5)-(1)a3h3.320.0323.340.0313.120.0343.060.0312.840.0372.790.0314h3.150.038(2)-(4&5)a3.280.0373.150.042(5)-(2)a3.030.0392.920.0492.820.041(5)-(2)a5h3.220.0383.270.0363.190.0373.080.0352.940.0442.880.036(continued)PAGE28YOUNGCONSUMERSVOL.18NO.12017
TableIIIIndependentvariablesAwarenessKnowledgeLikingPreferenceIntention-to-purchasePurchaseMSEpMSEpMSEpMSEpMSEpMSEpProÞleupdateincidenceDaily3.330.0320.000*3.290.0310.009**3.080.0330.006**3.020.0300.001*2.880.0360.000*2.850.0300.000*2-4timesaweek3.300.033(1,2,3)-(4)a3.310.032(2&3)-(4)b3.160.033(2)-(4)b3.080.031(2)-(5)a2.890.036(1,2,3,4)-(5)a2.850.030(1)-(3&5)aOnceaweek3.270.0323.320.0313.130.0323.030.0302.840.0362.760.0302-4timesamonth3.080.0343.200.0323.050.0373.050.0352.840.0432.770.035(2)-(3&5)aOnceamonth3.270.0323.270.0313.070.0312.950.0292.690.0342.710.028GenderMale3.240.0260.6163.280.0250.7223.070.0270.002**3.020.0260.9652.820.0310.4412.790.0250.717Female3.260.0263.270.0253.130.027(2)-(1)b3.020.0252.840.0302.790.025Age13-14years3.210.0350.1693.230.0340.003**3.070.0330.3033.020.0310.1012.820.0360.3862.790.0290.96615-16years3.260.0273.270.026(3)-(1&2)b3.100.0283.010.0262.810.0312.790.02517-18years3.280.0263.330.0253.120.0283.050.0262.850.0312.790.026PopulationgroupWhite3.120.0370.000*3.130.0360.000*2.950.0330.000*2.950.0310.000*2.610.0370.000*2.690.0300.000*Black3.270.025(2&3)-(1)a3.290.024(2,3,4)-(1)a3.240.026(2&3)-(1)a3.120.024(2&3)-(1)a3.000.033(2&3)-(1)a2.820.027(3)-(1)aColored3.370.0263.380.0253.190.0253.060.0233.000.0282.890.023Indian/Asian3.240.0563.310.0543.020.0612.970.0572.700.0572.760.047Notes:*Wald’sChi-squaretestshowedasignificantdifferenceatp0.001;**Wald’sChi-squaretestshowedasignificantdifferenceatp0.05;aBonferronicorrectionpairwisecomparisons’meandifferenceissignificantatthe0.001level;bBonferronicorrectionpairwisecomparisons’meandifferenceissignificantatthe0.05levelVOL.18NO.12017YOUNGCONSUMERSPAGE29
smartphonesandothermobiledeviceshasresultedintremendousgrowthamongusernumbersthataccesssocialmediaviamobiledevicesinAfricaandSouthAfrica.ThisenablesastutemarketerstocontinuallystreamrelevantandinterestedcontentviasocialmediamarketingcommunicationstoteenagerswhohaveneverknownaworldwithoutSNSandsmartphones(Barkeretal.,2013;Williams,2015).Adolescentswhohadusedsocialmediafor2yearsormoredisplayedthemostfavorablecognitiveattitudestowardSNA,whereas,conversely,thoseyoungconsumerswhohadusedsocialmediafor1yearorlessexhibitedthegreatestpositivebehavioralattitudestowardSNA(refertoTableIII).BalabanisandVassileiou(1999),LiaoandCheung(2001)andSago(2013)confirmedthattheexperiencelevelsofonlineusersaffectedattitudecomponentsforanarrayofinteractiveICTchannels.Itisapparentthatmoreexperiencedteenagershadbecomeaccustomedtosocialmediamarketingcommunicationsbecausetheirhigherattitudecomponentswerenotasreadilypositivelyaffectedasthosewithlessfamiliaritywhowere,therefore,foundtobemoresusceptibleinthisstudy(Cox,2010).Therefore,organizationsandtheirbrandsshouldcontinuallyprovideaccurateandrecentcontenttoGenerationZ,whoisabletoabsorbinformationinstantly,butmayalsoloseinterestquicklyifitdoesnotstimulateengagement(Williams,2015).Thelog-onfrequencyusagevariabledidnotresultinanysignificantdifferenceregardingattitudinalresponses(TableIII).Chandraetal.(2012)establishedthattherewasnodifferenceintermsofcognitiveandaffectiveresponsesbetweenfrequentandsporadicuserstowardsocialmediamarketingcommunications,whichisinlinewiththeresultsofthisstudy.However,themeanvaluesindicatethatadolescentswhologgedonmorefrequently(dailyandseveraltimesaweek)showedthemostfavorablepredispositionsacrossalloftheattitudestagestowardsocialmediamarketingcommunications.MaddoxandGong(2005)alsopositedthatthemostactiveInternetusersdisplayedthelargestinclinationtousecommercialcontentavailableonlinetoassistwithpurchasedecisions.Teenagerswhospentlongerperiodsoftime(twoormorehours)onsocialmediamanifestedfavorablecognitive,affectiveandbehavioralattitudestowardmarketingcommunications(refertoTableIII).Thisresultisarationalsuppositionbecausethelongertimeadolescentsspendonsocialmedia,themorelikelytheywillviewandinteractwithmarketingcommunicationsonthesedigitalICTconduits.Bridgesetal.(2009)alsoimpliedthatthelongermarketingcommunicationsweredisplayed,thegreaterthelikelihoodthatitwouldhaveapositiveeffectonbuyingdecisions.Organizationsandtheirbrandsshould,therefore,encourageyoungsocialmediauserstostayonlineforlongerperiodsoftimeviabrandedapps,gamesandcompetitionsandmanyotherinteractivepromotionaltoolstodevelopfavorableattitudinalresponses.GenerationZsocialmediauserswhoupdatedtheirprofilemoreregularly(dailyandseveraltimesaweek)displayedthemostpositivesentimentstowardmarketingcommunicationsacrossallattitudestages(refertoTableIII).Again,thisisareasonablenotionbecausethemoreteenagersinteractonsocialmedia,thegreatertheprobabilitythattheywillallinteractwithmarketingcommunicationsontheseinteractiveICTplatforms.However,theprofileupdateincidencehasnotbeenconsideredinpriorstudiesintermsofthisusagevariable’sinfluenceonsocialmediamarketingcommunicationsregardingattitudinalresponses.Therefore,thisisapioneeringinquirythathasmadeanoteworthyadditiontoSNSresearchamongyoungconsumersfromapracticalandtheoreticalperspective.Demographicvariables’effectonyoungconsumers’attitudecomponentsThegenderdemographicvariabledidnothavealargeinfluenceontheattitudecomponentsalthoughfemaleteenagersdisplayedhigherlevelsofliking(affectiveattitude)intermsofsocialmediamarketingcommunications(refertoTableIII).Bannisteretal.(2013)andRuaneandWallace(2013)alsorevealedthatmalesexhibitedlessfavorableattitudesthanwomenregardingsocialmediamarketingcommunications,whichisPAGE30YOUNGCONSUMERSVOL.18NO.12017
consistentwiththeresultsofthisinvestigationforGenerationZ.Hence,organizationsshouldtakeadvantageofthefactthatfemaleadolescentsalsoparticipateinagreaterquantityofsocialmediaactivitiesandaremoreprobabletohavefavorableaffectiveattitudestowardSNA(Walter,2014).Theagedemographicvariablealsodemonstratedalimitedinfluenceonattitudecomponentswiththeexceptionofknowledge(cognitiveattitude)asaresultofsocialmediamarketingcommunications,whereolderteenagers(17-18yearsold)displaymorefavorablesentimentsthantheiryoungercounterparts(refertoTableIII).Furthermore,themeanvaluesalsosuggestthatolderadolescentshavemorefavorableresponsesacrossalloftheotherattitudecomponentstowardsocialmediamarketingcommunications.Moore(2012)alsoestablishedthatoldercohortsreflectedmorepositivebehavioralresponsesthanyoungercohortsondifferentinteractiveonlineICTplatforms,whichisarationalnotionbecauseolderconsumerswouldhavelargerfinancialresources.MuleroandAdeyeye(2013)positedthatsocialnetworkmarketingwaspredominantlyusedandacceptedbyyoungerrespondents.Yet,neitheroftheabovementionedstudiesconsideredteenagersorageclassificationswithinasinglecohortregardingattitudecomponentstowardsocialmediamarketingcommunications;hence,thisstudyhasmadeapreliminarycontributiontoacademicdiscourse.PDIadolescentsexhibitedthemostfavorablepredispositionsacrossallattitudecomponentsowingtosocialmediamarketingcommunicationsincomparisontotheirWhitecompatriots(refertoTableIII).ThisisareasonablesuppositionbecauseBlackmiddleclasshasgrownconsiderably,sinceapartheidwasabolished,andtheirspendingpowernowexceedsthatoftheirWhitecounterparts.However,asignificantpercentageofPDIsinSouthAfricastilllivesinpovertyand/orareunemployed,buttheyareabletoaccesssocialmediaviamobiledevices(PetzerandDeMeyer,2013;Radebe,2013;Shevel,2013;DuToit,2015).Shevel(2013)reportedthatoverthree-quartersoftheBlackmiddleclassadolescentsattendprivateorformer“modelC”schools,whichhasincreasedthenumberofPDIGenerationZsocialmediausers.Furthermore,GrierandDeshpande(2001)establishedthatBlackSouthAfricansdisplayedahigherprobabilityofbeingfavorablyinfluencedbyadvertising.However,WhiteteenagersgenerallyhavegreaterlevelsofsocialmediaexperiencethanPDIswhomay,therefore,bemoresusceptibletomarketingcommunicationsontheseinteractiveICTconduits.However,fewlocalorinternationalstudieshaveconsideredtheeffectofpopulationgroupsonSNAregardingattitudescomponents.Hence,thisinnovativeinvestigationhasmadeasignificantcontributiontoboththedevelopmentoftheoreticalandpracticalperspectivesonsocialmediaandattitudinalresearch.ConclusionandimplicationsTeenagershavebecomelargelyresistanttotraditionalmarketing;hence,advertisingrevenuesformanyabove-the-linemediahaveslowedingrowthorevendeclinedinrecentyears,whereasseveralformsofdigitalinteractiveadvertising(inparticularmobileandsocialmedia)haveprovedtoberesilienttotheficklenessofthisyoungergeneration,aswellastheoveralleconomicconditionsofthemarket,andsohasseensteadygrowthoverthepastdecade(Lazarevic,2012;Jaffit,2015;Pombo,2015).Theemergenceofinteractivesocialmediahasmadeitpossibleformarketerstocommunicatetomillionsofyoungconsumersabouttheirproducts;consequently,theimpactofconsumer-to-consumercommunicationhasbeengreatlymagnifiedinthemarketplace.Noorganizationcandevelopwithoutaneffectivemarketingcommunicationstrategyfortheirbrandstocreatefavorableattitudinalresponsesamongtheirconsumersorusers,whichbeginswithawarenessandknowledge,andprogressesthroughseveralothercomponentsthatultimatelyclimaxinapredispositiontopurchase.AnumberoforganizationsandtheirbrandshaveusedsocialmediatopromotetheirbrandsandengagewithyoungcustomersamidanexplosionofdigitalICTplatformsinSouthAfricaandabroad.However,manyorganizationsandtheirbrandshaveusedsocialmediamarketingcommunicationswithoutVOL.18NO.12017YOUNGCONSUMERSPAGE31
trulyunderstandingtherealinfluencethatthesedigitalICTconduitsexertonyoungconsumers’attitudinalresponsesorwhetherandwhatusageanddemographicvariableshaveafavorableinfluenceonGenerationZ’spredispositions.Thisinvestigationestablishedthatsocialmediamarketingcommunicationshadasignificanteffectoneveryattitudecomponent,butthemeanvaluedeclinedwitheachsuccessivestage.ThesefindingscorrespondwiththesalesfunnelprinciplesthatweredevelopedviatraditionaladvertisingandverifiedthatSNAresultedinanalogousattitudesamongyoungconsumers.AnumberofusageanddemographicvariableshadamajorinfluenceontheattitudecomponentsofSouthAfricanteenagers.Themostnoteworthyelementsofthesefindingsascertainedthatadolescentswhoaccessedsocialmediaviamobiledevicesforprotractedperiodsoftime(morethan2h)andupdatedtheirprofilesonadailybasisexhibitedthegreatestpositiveresponsesacrossmostoftheattitudecomponentstowardmarketingcommunicationsontheseinteractiveICTchannels.Furthermore,olderfemalePDIteenagerswerealsomorelikelytodisplaythemostfavorableattitudestowardsocialmediamarketingcommunications.Thisstudyhasaidedtoreducetheacademic-practitionergapregardingtheattitude-to-advertising(Aad),andcohorttheoriesbymakinganoteworthycontributiontosocialmediaresearchfrombothaglobalandAfricanviewpoint,whichshouldserveasaplatformandcatalystforfutureinquiry.However,Kaushik(2009)notesthat“socialmediaisliketeensex.Everyonewantstodoit.Nobodyknowshow.Whenit’sfinallydonethereissurpriseit’snotbetter”.Thesamesentimentsareapplicabletomarketingcommunicationsonsocialmedia,withasignificantquantityofresearchstillnecessarytofullyunderstandtheimplicationsoftheseinteractiveICTchannels’effectsonyoungconsumers.LimitationsandfurtherresearchThisstudydoeshaveseverallimitations,whichprovidespossibilitiesforfutureinvestigations.ThereareanumberofdifferentsocialmediatypesthatareusedbyGenerationZ,buttheseinteractiveICTplatformswerecollectivelyanalyzedinthisinquiry,whichcouldalsobeexaminedindividually.Thisinvestigationdidnotconsiderexaminingspecificbrandadvertising,butexaminedsocialmediamarketingcommunicationsgenerically,whichmayalsoprovideachannelforadditionalresearch.GenerationZaretheheavysocialmediausers,butacomparisonofattitudinalresponsesfromothercohortstoSNAcouldbeassessed.ThisresearchonlyconsideredSouthAfrica,whichisanemergingcountrywithitsownsetofuniqueanddiverseculturalinfluences.However,otherdevelopinganddevelopednationsshouldbeinvestigatedtoascertainifGenerationZdoesindeedsharehomogeneouspredispositionstowardsocialmediamarketingcommunications.ReferencesAndrews,L.(2014),“InsightsintotheaverageSouthAfricanmobilephoneuser”,availableat:www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/78/121069.html#more(accessed23June2016).Arens,W.F.(2004),ContemporaryAdvertising,9thed.,McGraw-HillIrwin,NewYork,NY.Azzie,A.(2014),“Millennials–areonlinemarketersmissingthemark?”,availableat:www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/16/121887.html(accessed26June2016).Bagozzi,R.P.andBurnkrant,R.E.(1980),“Singlecomponentversusmulticomponentmodelsofattitude:Somecautionsandcontingenciesfortheiruse”,AdvancesinConsumerResearch,Vol.7,pp.339-344.Balabanis,G.andVassileiou,S.(1999),“Someattitudinalpredictorsofhome-shoppingthroughtheInternet”,JournalofMarketingManagement,Vol.15,pp.361-385.Bannister,A.,Kiefer,J.andNellums,J.(2013),“Collegestudents’perceptionsofandbehavioursregardingFacebookadvertising:anexploratorystudy”,TheCatalyst,Vol.3No.1,pp.1-20.PAGE32YOUNGCONSUMERSVOL.18NO.12017
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AppendixTableAICronbachÕsalphacoefÞcientforsocialmediamarketingcommunicationattitudecomponentconstructsAttitudecomponentphasesCorrecteditem-totalcorrelationCronbachÕsAlphaifitemdeletedAwareness(cognitive)Ð0.881Advertisementsonsocialmediaareeffectiveincreatingawarenessofbrands0.7040.862Advertisingonsocialmediaalertsmetonewcompanyofferings0.4910.880Ihavenotbecomeawareofnewadvertisementsonsocialmedia*0.6620.865Advertisementsonsocialmediaattractmyattentiontocertainbrands0.6870.863Icannotrecallanyadvertisementsonsocialmedia*0.6470.867Iview/clickonadvertisementsonsocialmediabecausetheyattractmyattention0.6660.865IcanrememberseveraladvertisementsthatIseeonsocialmedia0.6790.864Advertisingonsocialmediadoesnotalertmetonewproducts*0.6340.868Knowledge(cognitive)Ð0.845Advertisingonsocialmediaisaconvenientsourceofinformation0.5830.839Advertisementsonsocialmediaprovidemewithnewproductknowledge0.6010.837Advertisementsonsocialmediadonotprovidemuchinformationonbrands*0.5410.843Advertisementsonsocialmediaprovideusefuldataaboutcompanyofferings0.6060.837Advertisementsonsocialmediaareeffectiveinprovidinginformationonbrands0.6570.831Advertisementsonsocialmediaareapoorsourceofknowledge*0.5230.845Iuseadvertisementsonsocialmediatofindnewinformationaboutproducts0.5430.843Advertisementsonsocialmediaprovidemewithvaluableproductknowledge0.6180.836Liking(affective)Ð0.806Advertisingonsocialmediahasmademelikethebrandsmore0.6350.743Advertisingonsocialmediaaddstotheenjoymentofusingsocialmedia0.6180.745Advertisementsonsocialmediaareirritatingandannoying*0.3120.787Advertisementsonsocialmediaareentertainingandfun0.6640.738Socialmediahasapositiveinfluenceonmelikingadvertisedproducts0.5560.754Ihavepositivefeelingsforbrandsthatareadvertisedonsocialmedia0.6200.745Therearetoofewadvertisementsonsocialmedia0.4350.772Socialmediahasanegativeeffectonmelikingadvertisedbrands*0.2650.792Preference(affective)Ð0.795Ihavenointerestinbrandsthatareadvertisedonsocialmedia*0.2250.786Advertisementsonsocialmediahaveincreasedmypreferenceforspecificproducts0.5910.735Advertisingonsocialmediaimprovestheimageofcompanies0.5540.740Iavoidproductsthatareadvertisedonsocialmedia*0.2100.789Advertisementsonsocialmediaarerelevanttomeandmyinterests0.5900.735Advertisementsonsocialmediaareeffectiveinstimulatingmypreferenceinbrands0.6150.731Ipreferbrandsthatarepromotedonsocialmedia0.5980.733Advertisementsonsocialmediahaveapositiveeffectonmypreferenceforbrands0.6180.730Intention-to-purchase(behavioral)Ð0.895Iwillbuyproductsthatareadvertisedonsocialmediainthenearfuture0.7220.875Idesiretobuyproductsthatarepromotedonsocialmedia0.7460.873Advertisementsonsocialmediahaveapositiveinfluenceonmypurchasedecisions0.7050.876IwouldbuytheproductsthatareadvertisedonsocialmediaifIhadthemoney*0.7460.873Idonotintendtoacquireproductsthatarepromotedonsocialmedia*0.5570.888Iamlikelytobuysomeoftheproductsthatarepromotedonsocialmedia0.7230.875Iplantopurchasetheproductsthatareadvertisedonsocialmedia0.7180.875Advertisementsonsocialmediahaveanegativeinfluenceonbuyingdecisions*0.4900.894(continued)PAGE38YOUNGCONSUMERSVOL.18NO.12017
AbouttheauthorDrRodneyGraemeDuffettisaseniorlecturerintheFacultyofBusinessandManagementSciencesattheCapePeninsulaUniversityofTechnology,CapeTown,SouthAfrica.Hehaspublishedinthefollowingaccreditedjournals:InternetResearch,TheAfricanJournalofInformationSystems,ElectronicCommerceResearch,TheElectronicJournalofInformationSystemsinDevelopingCountries,TheRetailandMarketingReview,JournalofContemporaryManagement,AfricanJournalofBusinessManagementandSouthernAfricanBusinessReview.Hehasalsoreviewedpapersforseveralinternationaljournalpublishers,namelyEmeraldandSpringer.Hismainresearchinterestisonanyformofsocialmediamarketingcommunications.RodneyGraemeDuffettcanbecontactedat:duffetr@cput.ac.zaForinstructionsonhowtoorderreprintsofthisarticle,pleasevisitourwebsite:www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htmOrcontactusforfurtherdetails:permissions@emeraldinsight.comTableAIAttitudecomponentphasesCorrecteditem-totalcorrelationCronbachÕsAlphaifitemdeletedPurchase(behavioral)Ð0.811Ibuyproductsthatareadvertisedonsocialmedia0.6520.713Iusemanyoftheproductsthatarepromotedonsocialmedia0.6350.716Idonotpurchaseproductsthatarefeaturedonsocialmedia*0.2180.779Advertisementsonsocialmediaaffectmypurchasebehaviorpositively0.5920.723Advertisementsonsocialmediahelpmakemeloyaltothepromotedproducts0.6560.712Advertisementsonsocialmediaaffectmypurchasebehaviornegatively*0.1040.793Ipurchaseproductsthatarepromotedonsocialmedia0.6650.711Advertisementsonsocialmediaaffectmybuyingactionspositively0.6440.714Note:*NegativelyphrasedstatementscoreswererecodedVOL.18NO.12017YOUNGCONSUMERSPAGE39

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