Art Question

art project and need the explanation and answer to help me learn.

This assignment is both an exercise in library research and a way for you to organize your ideas for your research paper,which is to be a historical and critical paper on a topic of your own choosing relating to some aspect of the historyof animation as outlined in your proposal; this can be related to production, individuals or company, or a more generaltopic. It needs to be at least 1,500 – 2,000 words long, or approximately 7-8 pages of typed, double spaced pages. You areto employ three (3) or more book or journal references (such as website articles and commentaries found on DVDs). Inother words, I expect you to provide some sort of balance between books, journals, websites, and other sources. Toomuch reliance on course textbooks or course material should be avoided. This Assignment is split into several parts. First,briefly state (in one or two paragraphs) the topic of your proposed paper. Second, create an annotated Bibliography of atleast 3 books, 3 journal articles, and 3 websites that you propose to use in writing your paper. Thirdly, create a 5-entry,annotated Filmography consisting of animations, films, or motion design works that you intend to discuss in your finalpaper.
Requirements:
Emily Myers ANIM 223March 6, 2014 The Power of Silhouette Animation After seeing Lotte Reiniger’s The Adventures’s of Prince Achmed, I was hooked. This animation used cut out silhouettes, two dimensional outlines of figures filled in with black, as the characters for her story. I had never before seen a silhouette animation and was curious to figure out how this animation was able to captivate me. The design of the characters, are simple in the sense that there is no color, are restricted in detail, and have a limited change in perspective, yet are intricate and visually remarkable, both in design and performance aspects. It seems as though it would be difficult for viewers to connect to a character that is only a silhouette especially in a feature length film. One might say that a silhouette is an unfinished depiction of a character, which made me wonder how this film was able to impact me to such a great degree. This curiosity led me to explore shadow animation and to anaylize it’s powerful appeal. Reiniger’s book Shadow Puppets, Shadow Theatres, and Shadow Films quotes Johann Lavater, a scientist of Physiognomy1 as saying, “What can be less the picture of a living man than a silhouette, and yet how much is it able to say.”2 In a silhouette, a character’s personality reads immediately because the detail is eliminated leaving only the core. Though the silhouette was invented long ago, the image remains just as powerful and engaging now as it was 1 Physiognomy is a folk science that states a person’s outward appearance reflects his or her innercharacter. It is a science that is now considered false. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, s.v. “Physiognomy,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physiognomy (accessed November 12, 2006). 2 Pierre Jouvanceau, The Silhouette Film, trans. Clare Kitson (Italy: Chivari FilmFestival, 2004), 13.
then. This paper will explore the origins and evolution of silhouette animation, what makes a silhouette so engaging, and touch on Lotte Reiniger’s The Adventures of Prince Achmed. To explore this form, we must explore it’s origins and evolution. Silhouette animation originated from the combination of silhouette portraits and shadow theater. Silhouette portraits were invented and highly popular in Paris, beginning in 1759. They were easier to afford than painted portraits, and at the time, the economy was low. They were named after France’s controller of finances, Marquis Etienne de Silhouette. Since he taxed the French so heavily, they mocked him by calling everything that was cheap a silhouette. The name stuck to this form of portraiture and the word silhouette eventually made its way into the French dictionary. To construct a silhouette portrait, one would sit in a chair that had a glass frame connected to it. Oil paper would be placed against the glass, and the shadow of the subject’s profile would be cast onto it by candle light. The subject would rest his head on a support, allowing the artist to accurately outline the static shadow of his facial profile. Once the profile was drawn, it would be filled in with black ink and cut out. The portrait was simplistic, being made up of only one line, but depicted the individual accurately. This type of portraiture was popular for about a century because of its affordability, and spread to other parts of Europe, such as England, where the puppet design of silhouette animation was born. The second factor that shaped silhouette animation, shadow theater dates back to 11th century. This is a live performance form of entertainment that employs cut out characters pushed onto a translucent screen. There are rods attached to the characters, which enables the artist to move them. The screen is backlit in a way that allows the
viewers to only see the characters but not the puppeteers. Unlike silhouette animation, the design of the puppet is not limited by just a black outline. Instead, puppets are usually decorated with color, and details that are visible, much like the aesthetics of paper-cut animation. The shadow theater originates in various places with various folklores, but the most tangible origin story is that of the Karaghiozis shows from the Greece and Turkey regions. According to legend, two men, Karaghiozis and Hazivad, were working on the construction of a mosque. They engaged in fights that were so entertaining that everyone halted construction and listened to them. The Sultan became infuriated, and fearing that the mosque would never be completed, he sentenced them both to death. The Sultan regretted what he had done. To console him, a Chancellor had shadow figures made of Karaghiozis and Hazivad, and these figures were used to reenact the quarrels. When interpretations of the Karaghiozis shows started popping up in Europe, colorful characters were not used. Instead, because of the popularity of silhouette portraiture, the once detailed characters became black silhouettes. Shadow theater was not particularly popular in Europe, but a few people ascribed to the survival and progression of the art form, including French theater owner Rodolphe Salis. He devised a method of painting the shadow performances’ sets on glass, which influenced Reiniger to invent a multi-layered animation stand, a predecessor to the multiplane camera. These stands allow a scene to be separated into various layers to add depth of field to an otherwise flattened scene. The layers are separated by planes of glass under a horizontal camera to achieve this effect. Another aesthetic technique was developed by animator Frans ter Gast when exploring how to add detail to the figures. He cut intricate designs
into the characters backing them with tinted, translucent paper which adorned the black silhouette with a bit of color. This is the most amount of detail that can be added to a silhouette without changing its very essence. Details visible on the surface disappear when backlit. If the designs on the surface were visible, the end product would no longer be considered silhouette animation but instead cut-out animation. This leads to the question brought up by Pierre Jouvanceau in The Silhouette Film, “How can a silhouette be ‘completed’ without destroying the very idea of the silhouette?”3 The detail that is left out of a silhouette does not detract from the image or leave it incomplete, but instead it adds to the image’s appeal. By taking out all of a figures detail and leaving only its silhouette, the image almost becomes a graphic symbol that is read immediately by the viewer; and is thus more powerful and memorable. For example, in the television series The Twilight Zone the director, Alfred Hitchcock, is at first introduced to the audience by the silhouette of his shadow. The shadow cast by his figure has become more recognizable than the figure itself; his silhouette is what one associates with the name Hitchcock. Further evidence of a silhouette’s impact can be found in the 2006 Apple ipod silhouetted advertisements.4 These commercials feature black silhouettes of people dancing to music. The backgrounds are lit up with a single bright color reminiscent of Prince Achmed’s backgrounds. The concept is so simple, but the advertisement reached a multitude of people. In fact, the commercials collectively received a Global EFFIE, which is an award measuring the effectiveness of an advertisement.5 Psychologist 3 Jouvanceau, 56.4 You Tube, “I-pod Ad,” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NlHUz99l-eo, 12 November 2006.5 Denise McDevitt, “Leo Burnett lands highest number of EFFIE Awards in competition
August Rickel conducted an experiment revealing that a silhouette is imprinted onto the viewers’ retina and remains there after the image has vanished.6 This is one aspect that makes the silhouette so memorable to the viewer, by literally imposing itself longer in one’s consciousness. A silhouette can have a powerful impact on the subconscious. For example, the shape of a character, not only in silhouette but also when completely lit, can convey his or her moral status. The universal conception is that a sinister character will be disfigured with multiple points and angularity while a benevolent character will have smoother curves and be of regular proportion. The fabricator must cut the puppet accordingly to what personality he or she wants it to portray. Reiniger describes that her “wicked characters (sorceress, traitors, brigands, wicked stepmothers, and the like) are caricatured, so as to establish a clear distinction between them and the ‘human’ characters to whom they are opposed, and have far less pronounced features.”7 In silhouette animation, the profile is the easiest way to interpret a character’s personality. When the face is shown in the frontal view, its features become flat and difficult for the audience to read. In a frontal view, an evil character, looses the definition that made him read as evil and is more accepted by the audience. The evil sorcerer in Reiniger’s Prince Achmed is defined as malevolent by his hooked nose and his pointy, angular features. When Reiniger starts off the feature, he is facing the camera. She has to cut out lines to make his face recognizable to the audience. The image works to a degree, but it is not as effective as the profile. In Michel Ocelot’s silhouette animation Princes and Princesses, recognizing advertising effectiveness.” EFFIE Awards, http://www.effie.org/pressroom/press_04_06_05b.html, October 14, 2006 6 Jouvanceau. 7 Ibid., 68.
one of the stories depicts a man described as stupid. This aspect of his character is revealed through the profile of his face before it is announced or acted upon. He has an oval head that leans forward too much, a pudgy neck, and a lip that juts out further than any regular character. In silhouette animation as compared with more common forms of animation, it seems as though the acting would be limited due to the lack of the character’s facial visages. So much emotion can be conveyed through a single facial expression. Lacking these expressions, the animator must convey emotions solely through body performance, and attention must be focused on communicating through gestures. All character animation, no matter the medium, revolves heavily around body language to communicate emotion and personality to the audience. Silhouette animation utilizes its limitation of detail to distill and maximize attention to performance, allowing it to create stronger communication of who a character is and what he is experiencing through performance. In director Anthony Lucas’s The Mysterious Geographic Explorations of Jasper Morello, a mad scientist nourishes a monster by letting it suck the blood from his wrist. The main character portrays his disgust and fright by slowly stepping backwards. The lack of facial expressions in this scene not only goes un-noticed, but also allows viewers’ attention to be placed on performance and staging. A large factor in making this scene successful is the staging changes of the main character; his distancing of himself physically from the mad scientist secondarily enhances the communication of disgust, which is primarily conveyed through his body language. As the emotions are shown through performance of the figure, it is important for the puppeteer to construct a body that is easily read by the viewer. In this way,
performance heavily affects the design, look, and construction of the puppet prior to the performance itself. While a plain profile is most effective for the face, the body of a silhouette puppet is a bit more complicated. Instead of one single profile view of the body, each of the puppet’s parts must be in a different perspective to make it believable, according to Reiniger. Without this distortion, the character would not appear to have much depth. Reiniger achieves and streamlines this look with various techniques. She creates the puppet’s thorax in a three quarters or frontal view. This allows both of the shoulders and both of the arms of the puppet to be visible. The shoulder and arm in the foreground are made slightly bigger than those further away to distort and enhance depth. She positions and cuts out the pelvis in profile, while making sure that both legs are visible when the character is stationary. Inspired by ancient Egyptian art, this technique makes the puppet look three dimensional, organic and life-like, when in fact it is distorting and abstracting the figure. However these distortions of the body parts go unnoticed by the viewers due to the blackened-in silhouette and fluidity of the design.8 Some sources, such as Katja Roganelli’s Lotte Reiniger: Homage to the Inventor of the Silhouette Film, credit Reiniger as composing the first silhouette animation.9 This is a misconception. In fact Sporting Mice, created in 1909 by Charles Armstrong, was the first. Several sources also attribute Reiniger with creating the first feature-length animation: The Adventure’s of Prince Achmed. Though this fact is also left open to debate, she is without a question one of the first pioneers of animated features and a key player in the advancement in the art of silhouette animation. Her endeavors began when Berlin banker Louis Hagen viewed her short animated films and convinced her to create a 9 Lotte Reiniger: Homage to the Inventor of the Silhouette Film, dir. Katja Roganelli, Comenius-Film Gmbtt, 2002, DVD.
feature. Reiniger and her staff knew that in order to keep an audience from getting bored with the repetitious silhouettes, an enthralling story was necessary for counterbalance. Reiniger’s shorts were often inspired by fairy tales, so it is quite organic that The Adventure’s of Prince Achmed was derived from several ancient tales juxtaposed together to create this variety in pacing she was seeking. Funded by Hagen, Reiniger and her staff were given creative freedom to experiment with different techniques during the filming. They experimented by using different layers of glass to move the background and utilized sand to represent smoke. To create the changing colors in the background the staff employed a wax slicing machine. This machine has a circular blade that slices thin layers off of a block of wax with multiple layers of color. The final result was a success, best described by film historian William Moritz as “a brilliant feature, a wonderful film full of charming comedy, lyrical romance, vigorous and exciting battles, eerie magic, and truly sinister, frightening evil.”10 Reiniger’s silhouette animations are cherished by many, but some critiques such from The Fluid Glacial magazine bring up the point that “during the course of her life, Reiniger made at least fifty films, and it’s eighty times the same thing.”11 As previously mentioned Reiniger was aware and concerned with the repetitious aesthetic in using silhouettes. Jouvanceau asks, “is the silhouette capable of renewing itself? For does not the silhouette representation, by its very nature, condemn its practices to carry on reproducing the same kind of image indefinitely.” While there are few alterations that one can make to a silhouette without changing its very essence, there are many unique 10 William Moritz, “Lotte Reiniger,” Animation World Magazine, 1996,http://www.awn.com/mag/issue1.3/articles/moritz.1.3.html (accessed November 12, 2006). 11 Jouvanceau, 207-208.
characteristics separating one silhouette film from another. It is true that Reiniger mostly depicted fairy tales through her silhouette animations and her character designs were similar. It is common for an artist to have a reoccurring style throughout all of her work, but each of her films has individual aspects that distinguish it from the others. It would be difficult for one to mistake Lucas’s Jasper Morello with Michel Gagne’s Nightmare, even though both of these ominous shorts depict similar subjects. Both have space ships and a monster with tentacles trying to devour the main character. They look different because the layouts and character designs embody different styles. Jasper Morello’s characters are mostly elongated with sketchy edges, while Nightmare’s characters are short and more abstracted. Also Jasper Morello’s backgrounds have far more depth than those in Nightmare. The end credits of A Series of Unfortunate Events feature a combination of cut out and silhouette animation. In this sequence, the film’s evil Count Olaf is depicted as a silhouette that resembles, and is probably derived from, Prince Achmed’s evil sorcerer. Both have crooked noses and angular figures, but again, the silhouettes are easily distinguishable from one another and infused with their own personalities. Silhouette animation is not commonly found in cinema, but when used, the end product is effective and moving, beyond that found in mainstream forms. Instead of being distracted by detail, the core personality of the character is immediately revealed through his silhouette. Instead of gradually developing a connection with the character throughout the course of the feature, the audience instantly likes or dislikes him. It is this immediate reaction that makes silhouettes so significant. Lavater describes a silhouette as “Little gold, but the purest. In a silhouette there is only one line, no motion, no light,
no colour, no height, no depth, no eye, no ear, no nostril, no cheek, only a very little part of the lip-and in spite of it, how decisively significant it is.”12 However it is not in spite-of as Lavatar describes, but because of this simplicity and the elimination of detail that infuse the silhouette with so much visual power. Even though the silhouette is revealing only an outline, it is revealing an unmistakable form. Its limits allow the silhouette to distill essence of character, an effect that other animation has to fight to achieve by sifting through a sea of details. Design of the silhouette is best described with the common quote, “a designer knows he has achieved perfection, not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away.” 12 Lotte Reiniger, Shadow Puppets, Shadow Theatres, and Shadow Films ( Boston: PlaysInc., 1975), 13.
Bibliography Adventures of Prince Achmed. Directed by Lotte Reiniger. Animators Wlater Ruttman, Berthold Bartosch, and Alex Kardan. Grapevine Video, 1929, DVD. “Ipod Ad.” You Tube. Feburary 12, 2006. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NlHUz99l-eo, (accessed November 12, 2006). Jouvanceau, Pierre. The Silhouette Film. Trans. Clare Kitson. Italy: Chivari Film Festival, 2004. Lotte Reiniger: Homage to the Inventor of the Silhouette Film. Directed by Katja Roganelli. Comenius-Film Gmbtt, 2002, DVD. McDevitt, Denise. “Leo Burnett lands highest number of EFFIE Awards in competition recognizing advertising effectiveness.” EFFIE Awards. April 6, 2005. http://www.effie.org/pressroom/press_04_06_05b.html (accessed October 14, 2006). Moritz, William. “Lotte Reiniger.” Animation World Magazine. 1996. http://www.awn.com/mag/issue1.3/articles/moritz.1.3.html (accessed October 14, 2006). The Mysterious Geographic Explorations of Jasper Morello. Directed by Anthony Lucas. Madman Films, 2006, DVD. Nightmare. Directed by Michel Gagne. Animator Mike Hogue. MTV Networks, 2005. Princes and Princesses. Directed by Michel Ocelot. 2000, DVD. Reiniger, Lotte. Shadow Puppets, Shadow Theatres, and Shadow Films. Boston: Plays Inc., 1975. A Series of Unfortunate Events. Directed by Brad Silberling. Paramount, 2005, DVD. Singh, Salil. “If Gandhi Could Fly…Dilemmas and Directions in Shadow Puppetry of India.” The Drama Review 43.3 (1988): 154-168 The Twilight Zone. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Image Entertainment, 2006, DVD.

ANIM 223: Story & Concept – Historical Adventures in Cinematic Animation
Professor Emily Myers
Fall 2023
Research Paper and Presentation
Due: Class 20 – 11/15/23
Final work uploaded to Dropbox by 5:00
This assignment is both an exercise in library research and a way for you to organize your ideas for your research paper, which is to be a historical and critical paper on a topic of your own choosing relating to some aspect of the history
of animation as outlined in your proposal; this can be related to production, individuals or company, or a more general topic. It needs to be at least 1,500 – 2,000 words long, or approximately 7-8 pages of typed, double spaced pages. You are to employ three (3) or more book or journal references (such as website articles and commentaries found on DVDs). In other words, I expect you to provide some sort of balance between books, journals, websites, and other sources. Too much reliance on course textbooks or course material should be avoided. This Assignment is split into several parts. First, briefly state (in one or two paragraphs) the topic of your proposed paper. Second, create an annotated Bibliography of at least 3 books, 3 journal articles, and 3 websites that you propose to use in writing your paper. Thirdly, create a 5-entry, annotated Filmography consisting of animations, films, or motion design works that you intend to discuss in your final paper.
research material Due Dates:
Class 5, 10/11/23:
Research Topic
Briefly state (in one to four paragraphs) the topic of your proposed paper.
Copy and paste to Discussions in Blackboard called Research Topic
Class 10, 10/11/23:
Bibliography, Filmography, and Thesis Statement (New)
Annotated Bibliography should be in Chicago Style and should consist of:
Three books, one of which can be a textbook. Each entry must include a brief annotation explaining why you are choosing the book in question.
Three offline Articles: Three or more journal or newspaper articles found in either SCAD’s library, a local public or college Library, or in one of these library’s electronic databases, again with annotations explaining why you want to use them.
Three online Articles: Three or more articles found on the web. In each instance, you must provide a brief annotation explaining why you chose the particular item in question. Promotional, company and fan sites, or reference sites, such as IMBD are not acceptable, neither is Wikipedia.
Supplemental Bibliography: You may also provide an annotated supplemental Bibliography that can include books and journal/newspaper articles not found in the Jen Library or other local or college library. You can also list promotional, company and fan websites here, as well as Wikipedia (but not IMBD), you would like to use; in all instances, you should provide annotations to justify why you want to use these particular items.
Annotated Filmography
Your Filmography should include year of release, director, significant crew, studio and/or distribution company, country of origin and other appropriate details. It should be organized in alphabetical order. Please limit your Filmography to titles that you intend to discuss in your final paper, or documentaries/filmed interviews you want to use as references sources. Filmographies taken directly from IMDB without change are not acceptable. You also include here commentaries found on DVDs.
Please not that if your proposal/Bibliography/Filmography is found to be significantly incomplete, you can and will lose points. (Even papers focusing on one film or example must include at least 5 films in their Filmography.)
If you are having trouble finding sufficient material meeting any of these criteria, please do not hesitate to ask a librarian or myself for advice. If, in the end, you find it difficult to locate sufficient material, then you may have to find another topic.
Please note that not every item in your Bibliography or Filmography must necessarily be used in writing the final draft or your final term paper; I just want to see how you are organizing your thoughts and your list of possible resources will help me do that. All items listed should be accessible to you (ie, able to be sourced from the library or ordered online in a timely manner)
Thesis Statement (NEW ASSIGNMENT) . Write a thesis statement for your research paper (20 to 50 words)
Save to Bibliography_&_Outline folder in Dropbox. Name FirstnameLastname_Bibliography , FirstNameLastname_Filmography , FirstNameLastName_ThesisStatement
Class 17, 11/6/23:
Draft of Research Paper
By class 17, you should submit a completed draft of your research paper.
Save to Research_Paper folder in Dropbox. Name it FistnameLastname_ResearchPaper_Draft
Class 18, 11/8/23:
Meeting with Writing Resources Center
By class 18, you should have Writing Resources read your paper and give you notes and feedback of your work. MAKE THIS APPOINTMENT ASAP . Link to make an appointment found in Blackboard under Research Paper Folder.
Save a screenshot, pdf, or jpeg of the email confirming your Writing Resources appointment and name it LastnameFirstname_WritingResources_Email .

Class 20, 11/15/23:
The paper should be an historical and critical research paper relating to some aspect of the history of animation as outlined in your proposal. The topic may include a specific work(s), production, individual or company, but can also be related to a particular theme. It needs to be at between 1,500 – 2,000 words long, or approximately 7-8 pages of typed, double spaced pages. You are to employ three (3) or more book or journal references (such as website articles and commentaries found on DVDs). In other words, I expect you to provide
some sort of balance between books, journals, websites, and other sources. Too much reliance on course textbooks or course material should be avoided.
Auto Biographical Style: Does and Dont’s
In writing about an individual, you can include pertinent biographical information, including education and influences, but do not focus solely on this aspect. The same should be the case in regards to papers on particular animation, film or motion graphics. Your paper should contain analysis of your examples, but do not include extensive plot summaries within your essay. Endnotes/footnotes references must acknowledge the sources of your information, not just direct quotes. If you are not clear what should or should not be footnoted (or how to do a footnote), please check with a librarian, or myself.
Works Cited/Filmography
You must include a List of Works Cited (Bibliography). It should only include items (including books, magazine/newspaper/web articles/making of films etc.) you actually use in writing your paper. Your Filmography should include only those films/motion graphics works you actually discussed in the paper. Your List of Works Cited and Filmography in your research paper is separate from the Bibliography and Filmography prepared initially and should not include any annotations: any comments on a particular source or item should be reserved for the paper proper and/or your footnotes/endnotes).
Please note: Failure to include a List of Works Cited (Bibliography) and footnotes/endnotes may lead to a failing grade.
Changing Final Term Paper Topics: If you wish to change the topic of your final term paper after you have submitted your initial proposal, bibliography, and filmography, please check with me first. If I approve it, you will have to do an entirely new Proposal/Bibliography/Filmography. Failure to do so will result in an ‘F’ grade on the research paper. Submitting a new proposal at the same time as you hand in your Final Term
Paper is not acceptable.
Late Hand-in: Late papers will be graded down one full grade (10%) if submitted after the due date. Work will not be accepted after the final class (Class 20).

By Class 20, submit your final research paper as a PDF and label it FirstnameLastname_ResearchPaper. Save to Research_Paper_Presentation folder in Dropbox.
Presentation
Students will present their research findings to the class in a 7 – 15 minute presentation. Students can read their paper to the class with accompanying visuals that correlate, or prepare an alternate presentation that speaks to the paper and research. There is a minimum of 8 visuals, which includes at least one clip of animation. Clips should be 2 minutes or under.
Students can choose whichever presentation software suits them best (I recommend Google Slides).
Save presentation to Research_Paper_Presentaion Dropbox Folder
Assessment
Your written work will be assessed according to the following criteria:
• Relevancy of your research to the question.
• Knowledge and sources
• Analysis
• Argument and structure
• Independence of thought
• Written presentation – grammar/spelling etc.
Relevancy of essay to the question.
• The Argument should always be relevant and well sustained.
• The knowledge base should be sound and relevant.
• Try to demonstrate accuracy, relevance and an awareness of concepts.
• Show a good use and grasp of relevant concepts, issues and debates.
• Be clear in your aims and objectives.
• The content of the essay must be relevant to the question.
Knowledge and sources.
• You should demonstrate an understanding of concepts and their interrelationship.
• Show a good knowledge of relevant texts and other materials.
• The paper should reflect wider reading.
• Try to give an effective use of the knowledge you have learned and demonstrate a thorough understanding of a wide range of appropriate sources.
• Show a use of and understanding of references and bibliography.
• Aim for a well-focused knowledge base that reflects reading around the subject matter.
• Provide evidence of appropriate reading.
Analysis.
• Aim for a good analysis of evidence and arguments in the area under consideration.
• Conclusions need to be reached on the basis of sufficient factual information.
• Show a high degree of critical insight.
• Don’t rely on description over analysis.
• Aim for conceptual clarity.
• Avoid sweeping unsubstantiated generalizations.
• Avoid over heavy description. Description is needed but this must be balanced with analysis.
• Try to contextualize the information.
Argument and structure.
• Demonstrate knowledge that is thorough and an ability to contextualize this knowledge, applying it in a relevant way so as to sustain an argument.
• Give a clear illuminating conclusion.
• The paper should be coherent and clearly structured, making creative use of an appropriate and well-developed mode of argument.
• Keep the material focused and the argument sustained.
• Clearly articulate facts and information and interrelate them to form an argument.
• Aim for a comprehensive argument.
Independence of thought.
• Show evidence of independence of thought that demonstrates critical thinking and an engagement with alternative views.
• Try to extend beyond the reading material provided by course alone.
Written presentation – grammar/spelling etc.
• Write in clearly articulated, full sentences.
• Make sure your grammar/spelling and syntax are sound. Use the spell check tool.
• The presentation should be well written with standard spelling, grammar and syntax, in a lucid and resourceful style and with appropriate scholarly referencing.
Plagiarism is the use of someone else’s ideas as your own. Where you quote directly from a book, article, interview etc. you must acknowledge the source, and not try to pass it off as your own work. See SCAD’s plagiarism policy for more information.

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