Answer & Explanation

A professor has noticed an alarming behavior in some of his statistics students. Those students consistently tell themselves that they are not good at math, and because of this believe that studying for exams will not help. As a result of not studying, they do poorly on the first exam in the class. The students’ behavior is best described as an example of ________. the fundamental attribution error downward social comparison a self-handicapping strategy the over-justification effect

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